Computer Networks MCQ

1) Transmission of digital data between two or more computers is called?

  1. Internet
  2. Network
  3. Ethernet
  4. Data communication


Answer: d) Data communication

Explanation: The transmission of digital data between two or more well-established computers or data networks allows the exchange of data between sender and receiver, known as data communication or telecommunication network.

The best-known medium of data communication around the globe is INTERNET, and one can easily establish a working network by simply using an Ethernet cable medium or wireless communication medium.


2) The best modern-day example of a knowledgeable computer network is?

  1. Internet
  2. LAN
  3. WIFI
  4. Microwaves


Answer: a ) Internet

Explanation: The best-known medium of data communication around the globe is INTERNET, and one can easily establish a working network by simply using an Ethernet cable medium or wireless communication medium

Internet is the largest network ever existed on Earth. It is a network of multiple networks connected performing a similar task altogether.

The internet allows its user to share an enormous amount of data or messages around the globe instantaneously. Internet uses a set of instructions and rules for better transfer of data, also known as Protocols, and one of the most used protocol is TCP / IP ( transfer control protocol or internet protocol ); it is also the most widely used protocols around the globe.


3) What is a submarine communication cable?

  1. Either net cable
  2. Wireless media
  3. Cable to interconnect continents
  4. None of the above


Answer: c ) Cable to interconnect continents

Explanation: Submarine communication cable is a set of very high-speed fiber optic cables laid under the sea to interconnect various continent


4) Applications of data communication and computer networks are?

I) The system must deliver data to the correct location and should only be received by the intended user/device
II) Resource sharing through the means of printers and storage devices
III) Interaction with other users using dynamic web pages and Information sharing by using Web or Internet
IV) Video conferencing, emails, and instant messaging

  1. I, IV
  2. I, II, III
  3. II, IV
  4. II, III, IV


Answer: d ) II, III, IV

Explanation: Data communication and computer networks have made our lives simpler than the earlier time. As in earlier times, to send a simple message across the town, we had to use the post system and to wait for another week to get the reply. But after establishing the internet, we can simply send a message in seconds anywhere on the planet.

Along with this, data communication also provides us many benefits in day to day life, and some of the application includes interacting other people from web pages, nowadays there is no such task that can’t be accomplished through the website. From teaching to buying and selling, everything can be accomplished through dynamic web pages.


5) Classification of data communication and computer networks.

  1. Divided amongst the Geographical span / Inter-connectivity / Administration / Architecture
  2. Divided amongst the LAN / MAN / WAN
  3. Divided amongst the Ethernet cables / wireless communication devices
  4. None of the above


Answer: a) Divided amongst the Geographical span / Inter-connectivity / Administration / Architecture

Explanation: Data communication or Computer networks are classified based on numerous factors, including:-

  • Geographical span – it refers to the span or the spread of a network in the geographical plane. It can be two devices, two buildings, or even two continents.
  • Inter-connectivity – it denotes how devices are connected across devices, i.e., a single device can be connected to several devices, or all devices can be interconnected.
  • Administration- refers to the type of network, whether it is a privatized network that belongs to a single entity or a public element.
  • Architecture – architecture defines the structure of the desired network.

6) What is a geographical span in computer networks?

  1. Area covered under a certain network
  2. Connectivity rate at which data is transferred
  3. How the devices are connected in order to transfer data
  4. None of the above


Answer: a ) Area covered under a certain network

Explanation: Geographical span refers to the span or the spread of a network in the geographical plane. It can be two devices across a table connected through a wireless link, connecting all devices in a building, connecting all available devices within a country, a defined area, or even connecting continents all together in a network.


7) What is interconnectivity in computer networks?

  1. A network mesh to connect every single device to a particular network
  2. Connectivity rate at which data is transferred
  3. How the devices are connected in order to transfer data
  4. Area covered under a certain network


Answer: a ) A network mesh to connect every single device to a particular network

Explanation: Inter-connectivity denotes how devices are connected across networks, i.e., a single device can be connected to several devices, and all devices can be interconnected. A network mesh to connect every single device to a particular network. There are different types of structures called topologies to connect devices.


8) What is a PAN?

  1. Personal area network
  2. Popular area network
  3. Part area network
  4. Public area network


Answer: a) Personal area network

Explanation: The smallest established personal network for personal use is called a personal area network, also known as PAN. It has a maximum range of approximately 10 meters. The devices include Bluetooth or infrared enabled devices. This technology is used in our daily lives like TV remotes, to connect wireless devices like keyboard mouse or wireless headphones.


9) What is LAN?

  1. Local area network
  2. Large area network
  3. Lateral area network
  4. Long area network


Answer: a ) Local area network

Explanation: LAN, also known as a local area network, usually used in offices, school, universities, or inside a building that are connected to a single administrative system.

LAN is not much expensive to set up. It can be wired or wireless, depending upon the needs of the host. It works on a personal IP address and does not involve any heavy routing.

LAN is widely used with Ethernet cables and uses star topology to interconnect devices


10) What is MAN?

  1. Metropolitan area network
  2. Modern area network
  3. Maximum area network
  4. Manual area network


Answer: a ) Metropolitan area network

Explanation: A Metropolitan area network, also called MAN, is a network used within a city. It consists of either fiber optic cable for high data transmission or radio waves that can easily penetrate through walls. The most commonly used MAN is a cable TV network.


11) What is WAN?

  1. Wide area network
  2. Waste area network
  3. Worst area network
  4. None of the above


Answer: a ) Wide area network

Explanation: A wide area network, also known as WAN, which is the widest form of network connections available, can even span its area across the country or even continents. Telecommunication is the best example of WAN, which provides connectivity across the country, and it is extremely expensive and requires very high-speed technologies.


12) What are the ways to establish a physical connection between networked computing devices to access data communication?

  1. Ethernet cable media
  2. Wireless media
  3. Both of the above
  4. None of the above


Answer: c ) both of the above.

Explanation: The first step to establish data communication or a physical network is to lay the physical connection between all available computing devices or a server. To do so, we are provided with two options, wired medium and wireless medium, and the connection may vary from location to location or surrounding to the surrounding. Both media are considered best, but nowadays, there has been an increasing demand for wireless communication mediums due to the flexibility of use and data communication speed. But many services still use Ethernet cable.


13) What is Ethernet in data communication?

  1. Ethernet is a widely deployed LAN technology.that uses Cat – 5 coaxial cable with an RJ – 45 connecters and consists of 10 Mbps speed for data transfer.
  2. Fast Ethernet an extension of old Ethernet services with a data transfer speed of 100 Mbps and instead of coaxial cable, uses fiber optic technology for data transfer.
  3. Both of the above
  4. None of the above


Answer: c ) Both of the above

Explanation: Ethernet is a widely deployed LAN technology. Ethernet works on the specification 10 BASE – T, where T denotes the thick Ethernet cable, 10 represents the transmitting speed of 10 Mbps, and BASE depicts baseband. Ethernet cable comprises of a Cat – 5 twisted pair of coaxial cable with a connector called RJ – 45 (registered jack 45). The connector is a 48-bit mac address network interface card that helps to identify the devices and communicate with them. These coaxial cables and RJ – 45 are aligned in a star topology connected to a hub or switch, forming a star structure.

Ethernet works as a shared media device. A shared media device has a high tendency to collide; therefore, to reduce data collision risk, ethernet uses CSMA / CD technology. Carrier Sense Multi-Access / Collision Detection technology on detecting a collision rolls all its host back and wait for a random period and then again retransmit the data preventing all the collisions.


14) What are Fast Ethernet and Giga Ethernet in data communication?

I) Ethernet is a widely deployed LAN technology.that uses Cat – 5 coaxial cable with an RJ – 45 connecters and consist of 10 Mbps speed for data transfer.
II) An extension of old Ethernet services with a data transfer speed of 100 Mbps and instead of coaxial cable, it uses fiber optic technology for data transfer.
III) A modified version of Ethernet with a data transfer speed of 1000 Mbps
IV) Shared media in Ethernet create one single Broadcast domain and one single Collision domain

  1. .
  2. I, IV
  3. I, II, III
  4. II, III
  5. I, II, III, IV


Answer: c ) II, III

Explanation: FAST – ETHERNET:- Basically a modified extension of the older Ethernet cable. This Ethernet can work on ( UTP ) unshielded twisted pair, fiber optic wire, and wireless connection.

Fast -Ethernet works on the specification 100 BASE – T, where T denotes the thick Ethernet cable, 100 represents the transmitting speed of 100 Mbps, and BASE depicts baseband. Fast – Ethernet cable comprises of a Cat – 5 twisted pair of coaxial cable with a connector called as RJ – 45 registered jack 45. Ethernet works as a shared media device. A shared media device has a high tendency to collide; therefore, to reduce data collision risk, Ethernet uses CSMA / CD technology. Carrier Sense Multi-Access / Collision Detection technology on detecting any collision, it rolls all its host back and waits for a random period, and then re-transmits the data preventing all the collisions.

For fast emerging hardware and softwares, fast ethernet works on fiber optic medium and is defined as 100 BASE – FX, where FX denotes the Fast Ethernet over fiber optic cables, 100 represents the transmitting speed that is 100 Mbps, and BASE depicts baseband.

GIGA – ETHERNET:- A more advanced and faster version of Ethernet cable with a specification of 1000 BASE – X, where X stands for –CX, -SX, -LX, or (non-standard) -ZX., 1000 represents the transmitting speed that is 1000 mbit/s, and BASE depicts baseband. In general terms, a wire capable of transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second or 1 billion bit per second, making a revolution in the data transmitting industry.


15) The network arrangement containing nodes, hubs/switches, and connecting lines circulating data from sender to receiver is called?

  1. Server
  2. Data communication
  3. Internet protocol
  4. Network topology


Answer: D ) Network topology

Explanation: A network topology is a structure in which networking devices such as nodes, hubs, switches, and connecting wires are arranged in such a manner that makes data communication easy. These structures may be in the form of physical topologies or logical topologies.


16) What is a network?

  1. group of interconnected people or things
  2. two or more computers connected together and sharing information
  3. both of the above
  4. none of the above


Answer: c ) both of the above

Explanation: In simple terms, a network is a connection of two or more computers connected to each other through a connecting medium like a node, hub or switch. It is used for the transfer of data and information from the sender to the receiver.


17) Usage of the network?

  1. copying, pasting and printing
  2. exchange of electronic media
  3. transferring and sharing files
  4. all of the above


Answer: d ) all of the above

Explanation: The network has great importance in our day to day life such as copying, pasting, printing etc., and most importantly our cell phones that are inter connected to the network and are used to the exchange of electronic media, file transfer and many more tasks such as video call or instant messages.


18) Usage of network topology?

  1. A network topology is the interconnection of multiple computers in a specific way, which include a connection between two computers using data cables.
  2. Two or more computers are connected together sharing information in a specific direction.
  3. Set of rules and regulation that governs proper data communication amongst users.
  4. The physical path between sender and receiver through which the message or data travels.


Answer: a ) a network topology is the interconnection of multiple computers in a specific way, which include a connection between two computers using data cables.

Explanation: A network topology is an inter connection or an arrangement of multiple computers or network devices; these devices are connected in a very specific way to each other using connecting cables or wireless medium. These topologies can be physical topology or logical topology, depending upon the network.


19) What is the PTP protocol ?

  1. Point to point protocol
  2. Plane to the plane protocol
  3. Point to the plane protocol
  4. None of the above


Answer: a ) Point to point protocol

Explanation: PTP refers to the point to point protocol. In this type of network, there are exactly two hosts available, it can either be the computer, switches, or router connected to each other with a single wire. There is only one way of communication.

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20) Types of network topologies?

I) Mesh topology
II) Star topology
III) Ring topology
IV) bus topology

  1. I, II, III, IV
  2. I, II, III
  3. IV
  4. none of the above


Answer: a ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: A network topology is an inter connection or an arrangement of multiple computers or network devices; these devices are connected in a very specific way to each other using connecting cables or wireless medium. There are many types of topologies available, some of the most common are:

  • mesh topology – a form of a net
  • star topology – a form of a star
  • ring topology – inter connected like a ring
  • bus topology – the single back bone

21) Which statement is sutiable for Bus topology ?

I) Every device is connected to a single cable and transmits data from one end to another end in a single direction.
II) Only one backbone cable is required to connect all the nodes.
III) The amount of installation is high, and the complete processing depends upon one another.
IV) If the backbone cable stops working, the whole network will collapse.

  1. I, II, IV
  2. I, II, III
  3. IV
  4. none of the above


Answer: c) I, II, III

Explanation: In this type of topology, all the devices are connected to a single cable, and the data is transferred from one end to another, and uses a line terminator. Once the shared data reaches its destination, the terminator removes the line’s data for making space for more data. The major connecting cable is called the back bone cable, through which all smaller nodes or computers are connected. The major drawback to this type of shared communication channel is that if the main shared communication line stops working in any circumstances, it will automatically cause the entire network’s failure. Bus topology uses CSMA / CD technology.

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22) Which statement/s is sutiable for Star topology ?

I) Every device is connected to a single hub through a cable, the hub is the central control node, and all other nodes are connected to one central node.
II) N is the desired number of cable to interconnect each channel.
III) The amount of installation is high, and the complete processing depends upon the central node.
IV) If somehow hub or the central nodes fails, the entire topology will collapse, making it more difficult to work.

  1. I, II
  2. I, II, III, IV
  3. IV
  4. none of the above


Answer: b ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: Star topology consists of a main or a central node; it can be a router hub or switch. All other devices are connected to this central node through cables forming a point – to – point connection between central nodes and all devices. The major drawback of using a star topology is that the central node is responsible for all the major work; therefore, if at any point the central node fails, the whole system will collapse.

Relatively faster and reliable than the bust topology as there is no single / common data transfer channel. Data can be sent to the host at any time from any number of devices all together.

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23) Which statement/s is sutiable for Ring topology ?

I) Every device is connected to a neighboring device, so forming a ring like structure one after another.
II) N is the desired number of cable to interconnect each channel.
III) The amount of installation is high, and the complete processing depends upon one another.
IV) If any of the working nodes disconnects, the entire network topology will collapse.

  1. I, II
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III, IV
  4. IV


Answer: c ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: All the devices are connected to two neighbouring devices in a ring topology, forming a ring-like circular structure. If any node or connecting device fails, it will cost the entire system to fail in a ring-like structure.

The data transfer speed is relatively slow compared to a star topology. Suppose a device wants to send a message to a device that is not adjacent to it. In that case, the data has to travel through all intermediate hosts sacrificing security and privacy, thus slowing the data communication rate.

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24) Which statement/s is sutiable for Mesh topology ?

I) Every device is connected to another device using a particular channel.
II) N(n-1)/2 is the value to find the desired number of cable to interconnect each channel.
III) Robust topology, fault can be detected very easily, provides utmost security and privacy.
IV) High cable costing and installation is very difficult suitable for less number of devices, i.e., smaller network.

  1. I, II, III, IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: As the name suggests, Mesh topology consists of a multiple device communication networks, where each communicating device is connected to every other communicating device through point – to – point connection making it much more reliable, fast and secure. This type of network topology is least prone to failures because one device or host’s failure won’t crash the entire network.

Mesh topology can be of two types:

  • FULL MESH – each host is connected to another host through point – to – point connection. And the number of wires connected can be calculated through n ( n -1 ) / 2.
  • PARTIAL MESH – unlike full mesh, not all devices are connected to each other. These are connected arbitrarily, according to the user.

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25) Which statement/s is sutiable for Tree topology ?

I) Also known as Hierarchical topology.
II) The network is divided into multiple layers as we go down through the levels.
III) Robust topology, fault can be detected very easily, provides utmost security and privacy.
IV) The highest point is known as the core layer and is also the central point of the network layer.

  1. I, II, IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, IV

Explanation: Tree topology is a form of hierarchical topology, and is a combination of both star and bus topologies. This network is divided into multiple layers as we go down the network. The entire network is divided into three levels. The lower level or the roots is called the access – Layer, where all the computers are connected. The middle layer works as a connecting layer linking the lower level to the upper level like the trunk of a tree, and this layer is called the distribution – Layer. Finally, the top most layer is also called the core – layer, which is the central or the main node through which all the sub nodes are connected.

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26) Which statement/s is sutiable for Daisy chain topology ?

I) Every device is connected to a neighboring device, forming a linear structure one after another, and the endpoints remain unattached.
II) N is the desired number of cable to interconnect each channel.
III) The amount of installation is high, and the complete processing depends upon one another.
IV) If any of the working nodes disconnects, the entire network topology will collapse.

  1. I, II
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III, IV
  4. IV


Answer: c ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: Daisy chain topology is almost similar to Ring topology as it also contains two neighboring hosts allocated adjacent to one node, except the starting and the ending nodes. Unlike ring topology, it doesn’t form a complete ring. The outermost nodes are not further connected to any device.

In this structure, if any node or connecting device fails, it will cost the entire system to fail.

The data transfer speed is relatively slow compared to star topology and mesh topology. Suppose a device wants to send a message to a device that is not adjacent to it. In that case, the data has to travel through all intermediate hosts sacrificing security and privacy, thus slowing the data communication rate.

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27) Which statement is sutiable for Hybrid topology ?

I) The collection of two or more topologies together is called a hybrid topology. It can be a collection of star, bus, mesh or ring topologies together.
II) Only one backbone cable is required to connect all the nodes.
III) Best reliable topology, but the installation charges are very high.
IV) If the backbone cable stops working, the whole network will collapse.

  1. I, II, IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: c ) I, III

Explanation: Hybrid topology, as the name suggests, is a combination of multiple topologies altogether. It can be a combination of a ring topology with star topology or bus topology, thus making it more flexible. This type of topology inherits all the merits and demerits of all the topologies.

One of the best examples of hybrid topology is the internet only due to the fact that the internet is much more flexible than any other present network.


28) Characteristics of data communication

II) Delivery
III) Accuracy
IV) Timeliness
V) Jitter

  1. I, IV
  2. I, II, III
  3. II, IV
  4. I, II, III, IV


Answer: D ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: Data communication is the transmission of digital data between two or more computers or network devices. While transmitting data, the communication system’s effectiveness majorly depends on these four fundamental characteristics, i.e., delivery, timeliness accuracy, and jitter.

Delivery – While transmitting data, a good communication channel must be able to deliver the data to the correct location. It should only be read by the intended user / device, by maintaining privacy and security.

Accuracy – the transferred data must not be fiddled or altered by any outside source keeping the contents intact

Timeliness – the delivered data must reach the receiver on time.

Jitter – jitter refers to the variation in the package arrival time or the uneven delay in delivery.


29) A good data communication system properties are?

I) The system must deliver data to the correct location and should only be received by the intended user / device.
II) The system must deliver the data accurately, i.e., the data should not be unaltered or filtered
III) The system must deliver the data promptly. Late delivered data is useless.
IV) Data should be sent and received in a proper manner.

  1. I, IV
  2. I, II, III
  3. II, IV
  4. I, II, III, IV


Answer: d ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: Data communication is the transmission of digital data between two or more computers or network devices. While transmitting data, a good communication channel must be able to deliver the data to the correct location. It should only be read by the intended user / device, maintaining privacy and security. And the transferred data must not be fiddled or altered by any outside source keeping the contents intact, and the delivered data must reach the receiver on time.


30) State some major components of Data communication.

  1. message
  2. sender / receiver
  3. transmission and protocols
  4. all of the above


Answer: d ) all of the above

Explanation: Data communication channel comprised of five major components. Any data communication system is bound to have these five major components; sender, receiver, message, transmission medium and protocol.

Message – it is the information that is to be carried around.

Sender – device or user that sends the message.

Receiver – device or user to whom the message is sent.

Transmission medium – it is the physical path by which a message is shared between sender and receiver.

Protocol – it is the set of rules and regulations established for the successful transfer of data between the two ends.


31) one of the major component of data communication that allows data and sends for further processing.

  1. receiver
  2. sender
  3. client
  4. server


Answer: b ) sender

Explanation: One of the five major components of data communication, the sender, is a device or user that sends the message or data. The data can be in the form of text, numbers, picture, audio or video, and the sender can be a computer workstation, telephone handset video camera, or any device that send signal or data.


32) one of the major component of data communication that receives the allocated data and process the information.

  1. receiver
  2. sender
  3. client
  4. server


Answer: a ) receiver

Explanation: One of the five major components of data communication, the receiver is a device or user that receive the message or data, the data can be in the form of text, numbers, picture, audio or video. The receiver can be a computer workstation, telephone handset video camera or any device that can receive signal or data.


33) The physical path between sender and receiver through which the message or data travels.

  1. Hub/switch
  2. transmission medium
  3. client
  4. server


Answer: b ) transmission medium

Explanation: The transmission medium is a physical path between sender and receiver through which a message or data travels, the message can be in the form of text, numbers, picture, audio or video, and the transmission medium can be coaxial cable, fiber optics or a wireless medium.


34) Types of the data transmission medium.

I) Twisted wire
II) Coaxial cable
III) fiber optic cable
IV) Radio waves

  1. I, II, III, IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: The transmission medium is a physical path between sender and receiver through which a message or data travels. The message can be in the form of text, numbers, pictures, audio or video, and the transmission medium can be coaxial cable, fiber optics, or wireless medium depending upon the user’s needs. Nowadays, most provinces prefer wireless medium and fiber optics due to their easy connectivity and faster data transmission rate-making data communication much feasible. But there is still a great demand for coaxial cable in households. The internet router and television still use coaxial cables.


35) What is a protocol?

  1. Keynotes and information about the internet.
  2. set of rules and regulation that governs proper data communication amongst users.
  3. methodologies to send and receive data amongst users.
  4. set of instructions for the prevention of outsourcing hackers.


Answer: b ) set of rules and regulation that governs proper data communication amongst users.

Explanation: The set of rules and regulations are mandatory for devices to communicate easily and successfull transfer data through two ends. The protocol consists of all sets of rules like how data is transferred and confirmed by the receiver, which commands are used to send and receive data, etc. These set of rules are somewhat similar to our judicial laws.


36) What is FTP?

  1. File transfer protocol
  2. File transmission protocol
  3. File transfer protection
  4. File transmission protection


Answer: a ) file transfer protocol

Explanation: The protocol consists of all the sets of rules like how data is transferred and confirmed by the receiver, and which commands are used to send and receive data.

File transfer protocol or FTP, is a standard network protocol used for file transfer between a server and a client in a computer network. File transfer protocol uses authentication feature in the form of username and password, and for more security username and password are encrypted.


37) What is VoIP?

  1. Voice over internet protection
  2. Video over protocol
  3. Voice over internet protocol
  4. Video over international protocol


Answer: c ) Voice over internet protocol

Explanation: The protocol consists of all the sets of rules like how data is transferred and confirmed by the receiver, and which commands are used to send and receive data. VOIP or voice over internet protocol refers to the network service of phone or voice call over the internet. That means you can easily communicate through voice or voice message using the internet instead of a private network from a phone or telecommunication company. Some of the best examples used these days are WhatsApp call, skype, or zoom meetings, making voice communication over the internet more feasible.


38) SIMPLEX communication system?

I) Keyboard monitor
II) radio
III) television
IV) cell phone

  1. I, II and III
  2. I and II
  3. all of the above
  4. none of the above


Answer: a ) I, II and III

Explanation: A Simplex communication system is Unidirectional, i.e., it is one-way street. Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit, and the other can only receive the directed signals. One of the best examples of the simplex communication system is keyboard and desktop, as the keyboard can only send messages and monitor can only access them and display, television and radios also works on simplex communication system.


39) Communication in which transfer of data takes place in both the direction but one at a time?

  1. duplex communication
  2. half-duplex communication
  3. simplex communication
  4. none of the above


Answer: b ) half-duplex communication

Explanation: In half-duplex communication system, both of the two stations can send and receive data, but not at the same time. At a single time, only one device can transmit the data, and another device can only receive the data but cannot send another data simultaneously. one of the best examples of half-duplex communication is Walkie talkie, and Morse code, where a single person can send the message at a time.


40) Communication in which transfer of data takes place in both the direction and also at the same time?

  1. Full duplex communication
  2. half-duplex communication
  3. simplex communication
  4. none of the above


Answer: a ) full-duplex communication

Explanation: In Full duplex communication system or the cordless duplex system, both stations can receive and transmit data simultaneously. These are like two way street with data flowing in both directions at the same time. The telephone network is one example of a full-duplex communication system.


41) what is HTTP

  1. hypertext texture protection
  2. hypertext transfer protection
  3. hypertext transfer protocol
  4. none of the above


Answer: c ) hypertext transfer protocol

Explanation: HTTP, or the hypertext transfer protocol, is the foundation or the core layer of data communication over the world wide web. This is an application layer that consists of hyperlinks and hypermedia. Hypertext documents contain hyperlinks to other stored resources at different locations and can be easily accessed using these hyperlinks by a simple click or a simple command. All the website URLs start from Http / HTTPS.


42) What is OSI ?

  1. Open system internet
  2. Open system interconnection
  3. Operational system intercom
  4. Operational system interface


Answer: b ) open system interconnection

Explanation: OSI stands for open system interconnection and is a seven-layer communication system established by ISO or the International standard organization. The layesrs are:

  • Application Layer: Responsible for the user interface of the system. This layer consists of tools and protocols that interact directly with user.
  • Presentation Layer: This layer’s role is to define how data in the native format should be presented.
  • Session Layer: This Layer maintains time and sessions between services. For example, when we do authentication once, the session layer will come into action and hold the session record and does not ask for another authentication again in the fixed period.
  • Transport Layer: responsible for the delivery of data from one end to another.
  • Network Layer: This layer contains the address or the location of the sender and receiver
  • Data Link Layer: This layer is responsible for reading and writing data from and onto the line.
  • Physical layer: all the physical aspects like cable wires devices are covered in this layer.

43) Hardware layers of OSI

I. Network layer
II. Datalink layer
III. Physical Layer
IV. Transporter layer

  1. I, II, III, IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: Hardware layer of open system interconnection consist of major layers that manure the working on the physical or ground level the layers that come under hardware layers are:

  • Transport Layer: responsible for the delivery of data from one end to another.
  • Network Layer: This layer contains the address or the location of the sender and receiver
  • Data Link Layer: This layer is responsible for reading and writing data from and onto the line.
  • Physical layer: all the physical aspects like cable wires devices are covered in this layer

44) Software layers of OSI ?

I) application layer
II) presentation layer
III) Session layer
IV) Transporter layer

  1. I, II, III
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, III

Explanation: Software layer of open system interconnectio consist of major layers that manure the working on the technical level, the layers that come under software layers are:

  • Application Layer: Responsible for the user interface of the system. This layer consist of tools and protocols that interact directly with user.
  • Presentation Layer: This layer’s role is to define how data in the native format should be presented.
  • Session Layer: This Layer maintains time and sessions between services. For example, when we do authentication once, the session layer will come into action and hold the session record and does not ask for another authentication again in the fixed period.

45) What is TCP / IP model?

  1. Transmission control protocol and internet protocol
  2. Technical control protocol and internet protocol
  3. Transmission control protocol
  4. None of the above


Answer: a ) Transmission control protocol and internet protocol

Explanation: TCP / IP, also known as a transmission control protocol and internet protocol, is a structured internet suite consisting of four-layered models. Internet uses TCP / IP for communication.

Transmission control protocol comprises of the following four layers:-

  • Application Layer: this layer contains a set of instructions used at the interface level to interact with the network. For example, FTP, HTTP etc.
  • Transport Layer: This layer is responsible for data delivery between the sender and the receiver and contains a set of instructions containing information regarding the flow of data between hosts.
  • Internet Layer: This layer contains the location or address of the sending and receiving host, and this layer is responsible for the accurate transfer of data across the internet.
  • Link Layer: This layer contains the proper working mechanism for sending and receiving data.

46) The major difference between the TCP/IP model and the OSI model?

  1. Unlike OSI, TCP / IP does not have a special layer for presentation
  2. TCP / IP is cost-effective
  3. OSI is cost-efficient
  4. Both work similarly


Answer: a ) Unlike OSI, TCP / IP does not have a special layer for presentation

Explanation: Both OSI open system interconnection and TCP / IP transmission control protocol over internet protocol are almost the same in working. Still, the major difference is that TCP / IP does not contain any specific presentation layer for determining how data in the native format should be presented.


47) First Layer to send or receive data through one device to other

  1. Mac address
  2. Physical Layer
  3. Ip address
  4. All of the above


Answer: b ) Physical Layer

Explanation: The first layer that is used to send or receive data through one device to other is the Physical Layer.

Physical layer: all the physical aspects like cable wires devices are covered in this layer


48) What is a Mac Address?

  1. The physical address of your device through which your device is identified
  2. the logical address of your device through which your device is identified
  3. both A and B
  4. none of the above


Answer: a ) The physical address of your device through which your device is identified

Explanation: The second layer is used to hold the location or address of your device through which your device is identified

Internet Layer: This layer contains the location or address of the sending and receiving host, and this layer is responsible for the accurate transfer of data across the internet


49) what is an IP address?

  1. The physical address of your device through which your device is identified
  2. the logical address of your device through which your device is identified
  3. both A and B
  4. none of the above


Answer: b ) The logical address of your device through which your device is identified.

Explanation: The device’s logical address through which your device is identified, called as an IP address. Ip address is present in the 4th layer of tcp / ip model also known as transport layer.


50) How TCP/IP model and OSI model similar ?

I. In both models, data is divided into packets and each packet may take the individual route from the source to the destination.
II. protocols are defined in a layer-wise manner.
III. network layers and the transport layers are same
IV. they both are protocols.

  1. I, II, III
  2. IV
  3. I, II, III, IV
  4. None of the above


Answer: a ) I, II, III

Explanation: Both TCP/IP and OSI models are based upon layered architecture. Their protocols are defined in a layered manner, and the data id divided into packets and travels in form of packets to their desired destination. The network layers and the transport layers are the same in both the models. The physical layer and the data link layer of the OSI model is similar to the data link layer of the TCP/IP model. And the session layer, the presentation layer and the application layer of the OSI model combined to do the tast accomplished by the application layer of the TCP/IP model.


51) What does PPP stands for?

  1. protect to peer protocol
  2. peer to peer protocol
  3. point point protocol
  4. none of the above


Answer: b ) peer to peer protocol

Explanation: PPP stands for peer to peer protocol. As the name suggests, peers refer to a particular computer or node connected to another peer. And files are shared directly amongst these two peers or nodes without and the central server or core node. Each time the process occurs, the sending computer becomes the server, and the receiver becomes the client.


52) How many layers does TCP / IP model contains?

  1. 7 layered model like OSI
  2. 4 layers easy accessible model
  3. Single-layer networking model
  4. None of the above


Answer: b ) 4 layers easily accessible model

Explanation: TCP is also known as the transmission control protocol. It is a structured internet suite that consists of a four-layered model. Internet uses TCP for communication.

Transmission control protocol comprises of the following four layers:-

  • Application Layer: this layer contains a set of instructions used at the interface level where the user can interact with the network. For example, FTP, HTTP etc.
  • Transport Layer: This layer is responsible for data delivery between the sender and the receiver and contains a set of instructions containing information regarding the flow of data between hosts.
  • Internet Layer: This layer contains the location or address of the sending and receiving host, and this layer is responsible for the accurate transfer of data across the internet
  • Link Layer: This layer contains the proper working mechanism for sending and receiving data.

53) Why TCP / IP model is considered better than OSI model?

I) Consist of 4 layer model
II) Designed and developed by the department of defense DOD in 1960
III) In existence since the time of ARPANET
IV) Internet layer is equivalent to the network layer in the OSI model

  1. I, II, III,IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: TCP, also known as a transmission control protocol, is a structured internet suite consisting of four-layered models. Internet uses TCP for communication. It is a 4 layered communication model designed and developed by the department of defense DOD in 1960. It was in existence since the starting of ARPANET ( Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ). It is somewhat equivalent to the OSI model.

OSI model is a generic model that is based upon functionalities of each layer. TCP/IP model is a protocol-oriented standard. The OSI has seven layers while the TCP/IP has four layers. TCP/IP provides better functioning with lower complexity.


54) why TCP / IP model is the most used networking model in world?

I) Set of protocols that allows communication between multiple devices
II) Designed and developed by the department of defense DOD in 1960
III) Robust to failures and flexible to diverse networks
IV) Most widely used network and become standard networking option for Unix based interoperating computers

  1. I, II, III,IV
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) I, II, III, IV

Explanation: TCP also is known as the transmission control protocol. It is a structured internet suite that consists of a four-layered model. Internet uses TCP for communication. It is a 4 layered communication model designed and developed by the department of defense DOD in 1960. TCP contains an internet protocol that allows feasible communication between multiple devices. This is Robust to failures and flexible to diverse networks. It is one of the most widely used networks and become a standard networking option for Unix based computers.


55) What is the role of the application layer in the TCP / IP model?

  1. Combination of HTTP / HTTPS, SSH, NTP
  2. Allows the sender to easily send required data through a medium
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above


Answer: c ) both A and B

Explanation: Application Layer: this layer contains a set of instructions used at the interface level where the user can interact with the network. For example, FTP, HTTP. It allows the sender to easily send required data through a medium.


56) What is the role of the transport layer in the TCP / IP model?

  1. Combination of TCP / IP, UDP, SCTP
  2. Contains the address of senders as well as the receiver and the location at which the data should be transferred
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above


Answer: c ) both A and B

Explanation: Transport Layer: This layer is responsible for data delivery between the sender and the receiver and contains instructions containing information regarding the data flow between hosts. It is a combination of TCP / IP, UDP, SCTP.


57) The role of the network layer in the TCP / IP model.

  1. Contains the address of senders as well as the receiver and the location at which the data should be transferred
  2. Allows the sender to easily send required data through a medium
  3. Contains all the important guidelines like address of host for the proper transportation of data.
  4. None of the above


Answer: c ) Contains all the important guidelines for the proper transportation of data.

Explanation: The network layer contains the location or address of the sending and receiving host, and this layer holds all the information regarding the accurate transfer of data across the internet. The layer roughly corresponds to the OSI network layer, and is responsible for routing messages between different local networks.


58) what is the role of the data link layer in the TCP / IP model?

  1. Contains the address of senders as well as the receiver and the location at which the data should be transferred
  2. Allows the sender to easily send required data through a medium
  3. Contains all the important guidelines for the proper transportation of data
  4. The main role is to receive the data from the sender and finally deliver it to the right address through a medium


Answer: d ) The main role is to receive the data from the sender and finally deliver it to the right address through a medium.

  • Data Link Layer: This layer contains the proper working mechanism for sending and receiving data.
  • Data link layer is responsible for collecting information for transmission in form of packets and also ensures that the packet move successfully from one end to another. And it also holdsmethods to resolve errors that comes while transmission of data.

59) What is the importance / why it is important to have a computer network?

I) Earlier people use to send and receive information by hand or by the help of postal service which is much slow and very much unreliable, and in order to speed up the process, computer networks are established.
II) Computer networking enables a much faster and more efficient mode of communication compared to earlier postal service. This includes email, telephonic communication, video conferencing etc
III) Establishing a good and successful computer network leads to cost-saving and time consumption
IV) People got bored with previous methods of communication and were looking for something new and interesting to spend time.

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III
  4. IV


Answer: c ) I, II, III

Explanation: Earlier people use to send and receive information by hand or with postal service, which is much slow and unreliable. To speed up the process, the computer network are established.

Computer networking enables a much faster and more efficient mode of communication compared to earlier postal service. This includes email, telephonic communication, video conferencing etc

Establishing a good and successful computer network leads to cost-saving and time consumption.


60) Characteristics of a good and reliable computer network?

I) A good and established computer network consists of standard policies and procedures to regulate the easy and structured flow of data throughout the network.
II) Computer networking enables a much faster and more efficient mode of communication compared to earlier postal service. This includes email, telephonic communication, video conferencing etc.
III) Establishing a good and successful computer network leads to cost-saving and time consumption.
IV) A good computer network provides backup and recovery support for data, i.e., redundancy along with security options to prevent crackers and unwanted malware.

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, II, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) all of the above

Explanation: All the given options are the characterstics of good and reliable Computer network.


61) What is a network topology ?

  1. A good and established computer network that consists of standard policies and procedures to regulate the easy and structured flow of data throughout the network is called a network topology.
  2. Combination of HTTP / HTTPS, SSH, NTP is called a network topology
  3. Runtime codes deployed at the time of processing is called a network topology.
  4. Network topologies define the structure and properties of a network and are of two types physical and logical topologies


Answer: d ) Network topologies define the structure and properties of a network and are of two types physical and logical topologies

Explanation: A network topology is an inter connection or an arrangement of multiple computers or network devices; these devices are connected in a very specific way to each other using connecting cables or wireless mediums. These topologies can be physical topology or logical topology, depending upon the network.

PHYSICAL – Physical design of a network, including the network devices used, location to establish, and cables used. mainly the structure and blueprint of the network that will be enabled

LOGICAL – How the data moves throughout the network. this consist of CSMA / CA, CSMA / CD, Ethernet is called logical network topology.


62) What is a physical network topology ?

  1. Manual setting up cables and layers of a network is called a physical network topology.
  2. The physical design of a network, including the network devices used, location to establish, and cables used, mainly the structure and blueprint of the network that will be enabled
  3. Runtime codes deployed at the time of processing is called a physical network topology.
  4. How the data moves throughout the network. this consist of CSMA / CA, CSMA / CD,


Answer: b ) The physical design of a network, including the network devices, location to establish, and cables used, mainly the structure and blueprint of the network that will be enabled.

Explanation: A network topology is an inter connection or an arrangement of multiple computers or network devices; these devices are connected in a very specific way to each other using connecting cables or wireless medium. These topologies can be physical topology or logical topology, depending upon the network.

The physical design of a network, including the network devices used, location to establish, and cables used, mainly the structure and blueprint of the network that will be enabled is called the physical topology.


63) What is a logical network topology ?

  1. Manual setting up cables and layers of a network is called a logical network topology.
  2. Design of a network, including the network devices, location to establish, and cables used, mainly the structure and blueprint of the network that will be enabled.
  3. Runtime codes deployed at the time of processing are called a logical network topology
  4. How the data moves throughout the network, and it consist of CSMA / CA, CSMA / CD, Ethernet, is called logical network topology.


Answer: d ) How the data moves throughout the network, and it consist of CSMA / CA, CSMA / CD, Ethernet, is called logical network topology.

Explanation: A network topology is an inter connection or an arrangement of multiple computers or network devices; these devices are connected in a very specific way to each other using connecting cables or wireless medium. These topologies can be physical topology or logical topology, depending upon the network.

It explaisn how the data moves throughout the network, and consist of CSMA / CA, CSMA / CD, Ethernet, is called logical network topology.


64) What is a network interface card or ( NIC )?

I) It provides all the physical and electrical, light or radio frequency connection to the network media.
II) A connecting device that makes Computer networking enables a much faster and more efficient communication mode than earlier postal service. This includes email, telephonic communication, video conferencing, etc.
III) The network adapter installed on your network device is called a network interface card.
IV) It can either work as an expansion card, USB device, or built, and attached directly to the motherboard.

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III, IV
  4. IV


Answer: c) I, III, IV

Explanation: A network interface card or NIC is the network adapter installed on your network device. It provides all the physical and electrical, light or radio frequency connection to the network media. It can either work as an expansion card, USB device, or built and attached directly to the motherboard.


65) What is a Basic Router?

I) A device used to connect different networks altogether and Routes traffic between different networks using IP address.
II) A connecting device that makes Computer networking enables a much faster and more efficient communication mode than earlier postal service. This includes email, telephonic communication, video conferencing etc.
III) It uses intelligent decisions, also known as routing protocols, in order to find the best way to get a packet of information from one network to another.
IV) It can either work as an expansion card, USB device or built and attached directly to the motherboard.

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: c) I, III

Explanation: A device used to connect different networks altogether and Routes traffic between different networks using the IP address. It uses intelligent Decisions, also known as routing protocols, in order to find the best way to get a packet of information from one network to another. It can use either coaxial cables, fiber optic cable or wireless transmission for data transfer.


66) Why is it important to have computer network security?

I. To reduce the chances of foreign contamination or any type of alteration in files while sending and receiving the data through an unsecured channel or a public channel.
II. Having a computer network security prevent the unethical source from accessing private data such as location, account details, any monitory detail, residential address or any information regarding near and dear ones making it inaccessible for crackers to access them and harm them.
III. To save important secrets and data from crackers or unethical hackers from interrupting and manipulating data or deploying malware that may corrupt the file.
IV. To save important data from viruses like TROJAN HORSE, malware, or any other thing causing file discrepancies.

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) all of the above

Explanation: When the internet established, it was accessible to only the military and university for research or development purposes. Later, when the internet was made available for the common public, and all public networks were merged, then the data also started to travel through a public channel, making it even more prone to cyber attackers.

People even share high sensitive documents such as bank credentials, usernames and passwords, personal documents, online shopping details, or confidential documents over the internet, attracting crackers. In order to prevent any consequences, cyber network security is very important.

It helps to reduce the chances of foreign contamination or any type of alteration in files while sending and receiving the data through an unsecured channel or a public channel and to save important data from viruses like TROJAN HORSE, malware or any other thing causing file discrepancies. And to save important secrets and data from crackers or unethical hackers from interrupting and manipulating data or deploying malware that may corrupt the file.


67) Types of security threats ?

I. Interruption
II. Privacy breach
III. Integrity
IV. Authenticity

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) all of the above

Explanation: All security breaches are done for a purpose, and are never accidental. Security threats can be divided into the following categories:-

  • Interruption is a security breach in which a cracker or malware attacks the resource’s hub or center. For example, a users web – server is hacked, he would not be able to access his web – server.
  • Privacy-Breach – as the name suggest in this type of cyber attack, the cracker or malware gets access to the personal data of the user by directly intercepting the data that is either sent by the user or received by any authentic client.
  • Integrity – in this type of data breach, the cracker or malware doesn’t harm the user’s device; instead, they alter or change the content of the data that is being sent. These attackers directly intercept the files or data send by the sender, manipulate by changing old data or by creating new, and then send the false file to the receiver. The receiver receives the file as if they were the same.
  • Authenticity – in these type of breaches and cyber failures, the attacker either poses as an authentic person and manipulate the resource or event try to contact with another actual user by mimicking like one of them.

68) What is cryptography ?

  1. A wall type security called firewall that prevents malware and hackers from entering the system.
  2. A technique to encrypt plain text data into codes or crypto makes it difficult for attackers to read and modify data.
  3. Anti viruses that prevent and remove any type of harmful files and software that may cause a data breach.
  4. None of the above


Answer: b ) A technique to encrypt plain text data into codes or crypto makes it difficult for attackers to read and modify data.

Explanation: Due to the increased use of the internet and easy data availability, it is easy for hackers and malware to easily breach low key security and affect important information and data. Due to this, there’s been a major increase in the number of cybercrime.

But in order to prevent these breaches, there are numerous ways we can prevent attackers from entering our secured parameters, but none of them are 100 % secure. Still, there’s a technique to prevent such crimes, and it is called CRYPTOGRAPHY.

Cryptography is a technique to encrypt plain text data into codes or crypto to make it difficult for attackers to read and modify data.

Some of the majorly known crypto algorithms are

Secret Key – As the name suggests, both the sender and receiver have one secret key or password for a particular file or documents. When sending data, the sender encrypts the data using the secret key as a password, and then it is sent to the client using a public network to the receiver. Once the receiver gets the files, he can decrypt the files using the secret key again. He can easily retrieve all the files and data, making it very difficult for the attacker to easily crack the security code.

Example – Archiving softwares like WIN RAR uses security key to secure important files at the time of sending.

Message Digest – It is one of the most secure data encryption methods and the most complex to crack. In this method, sender never sends the actual data of files; instead, they convert the data to complex hash values and send. After the receiver receives the files, he computes his hash value and compares them with the hash value of the files received and if both the values matches, only the files are accepted. Else they are rejected, making it even more difficult for attackers.

An example of Message Digest is MD5 hashing. It is mostly used in authentication where the user password is cross checked with the one saved on the server.

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69) What is Digital Transmission ?

  1. A wall type security called firewall that prevents malware and hackers from entering the system.
  2. Received data is always stored in the form of signals, either analog or digital.
  3. Anti viruses that prevent and remove any type of harmful files and software that may cause a data breach.
  4. None of the above


Answer: b ) Received data is always stored in the form of signals, either analog or digital.

Explanation: A file or data is always stored in the form of signals. They can either be digital signals or analog signals depending on the form of the signal received. But before transmitting any form of data, it is mandatory to convert it to a digital signal. It can be easily done by using line coding

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LINE CODING – line coding is the process of converting digital data into digital signals. Initially, the data received is in the form of binary digits, i.e., it is stored and represented by a series of 1s and 0s. Line coding scheme is further divided into three methods. Uni – polar encoding, polar – encoding and bi – polar encoding.

Uni – polar encoding → this uses single level voltage to represent data, where 1 represents a high voltage level, and 0 represents no voltage or zero voltage transmitted

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Polar encoding → polar encoding uses two levels to denote voltage. 1 represents positive voltage, and 0 donates negative voltage.

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Bi – polar encoding → bi polar encoding consist of three levels; positive, negative, and zero, where zero is denoted by 0, and 1 represents altered positives and negatives

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70) Modes of wireless transmission of data?

I. Radio waves
II. Infrared transmission
III. Light transmission
IV. Microwaves

  1. all of the above
  2. none of the above
  3. I, III
  4. IV


Answer: a ) all of the above

Explanation: A wireless transmission medium is a mode of data transmission channel that does not involve any physical link or connection between the client and the server. Here the surrounding air act as a medium of travel for the data signals spread across the room that later received by transmitting antenna.

Some of the widely used modes of wireless transmission are:-

RADIO WAVES – one of the most common mode for wireless data transmission because these waves are very easy to generate and can penetrate walls easily therefore used mostly in metropolitan cities.

These waves can have an approximate wave length ranging from 1 mm – 100000km and a frequency of 3 HZ.

Radio waves are mostly used in telecommunication and network connectivity.

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MICRO WAVES – these waves can only travel in a straight line and have electro magnetic properties; therefore, sending and receiving antennas must be placed at the same height and be aligned properly according to the line of sight.

These waves can have an approximate wave length ranging from 1 mm – 1 m and a frequency ranging from 300 MHz – 300 GHz.

They are mostly used in sonars or weather forecast.

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INFRARED TRANSMISSION – these are mostly used in short-length communication in a straight line because of high frequency. They cannot penetrate through the wall and can only move in a straight line.

These waves can have an approximate wave length ranging from 700 nm – 1 mm and a frequency ranging from 300GHz – 430 Thz

LIGHT TRANSMISSION – as the name suggests, it uses medium of light or optical signals to transfer data. The device consists of a laser or device to emit light and a photo – detector. The laser or the light source works as the transmitter and the photo – detector as the receiver. Due to the property of light, it travels only in a straight line; therefore, the sending and receiving antenna’s placement must be in the same plane, and must be on the line of sight.


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