Machine Instructions

What is a Digital Computer? A computer that takes input in a binary form and produces output in binary form. The question arises of what kind of input the computer takes or what kind of input’s required for the computer to work on. So inputs are two things Programs +...

Instruction Pipelining and Pipeline Hazards

Instruction Pipelining and Pipeline Hazards To apply pipeline, the prerequisite is to perform the same processing over multiple inputs, then pipelining is important. So instruction execution is the best example for this kind of requirement. For every instruction,...

Pipelining: Computer Organization and Architecture

Introduction to Pipelining Before learning pipeline, we have to understand about the Parallel processing. Parallel processing is the processing of data simultaneously. There are three techniques of parallel processing. Types of Processing: Vector ProcessingArray...

Instruction Cycle: Computer Organization and Architecture

What is an effective Address? “Effective address is the address of operand in a computation-type instruction.” Computation type instructions are like ADD, SUB, MOV, OR, AND, etc., which require operand to operate. Whenever the operand is present, its address is known...

COA: Interrupt and its types

Introduction: In general terms, the word interrupt means to stop the progress of ongoing work in between or to break the continuation of the work. In early digital computing, the system processor has to wait a long for the signal to process. Internally CPU has to...

Addressing Modes

Introduction: Addressing Modes An instruction consists of two parts opcode and operands. Opcode tells the operation going to perform, and operand information is the address of the operand. The CPU interprets this address in many ways, so to solve this confusion, some...

CPU Registers

CPU Registers Within the CPU, we have small- small storage units called registers. If we are executing a certain program within the CPU, there’s a need to store that program content, we need a storage device, or small memories that reside inside the CPU called...

Micro-Operations

Micro-Operations If CPU wants to perform any operation, suppose execution of only one instruction or even break it down one particular execution phase (like fetch instruction, write back, decode, operand fetch etc.). CPU cannot perform one operation in one single...

Data Path, ALU and Control Unit

Data Path, ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit) and Control Unit What is the Data path? Suppose any data processing operation should be performed in the CPU like transferring the content of register from one place to another, from one register to another register, performing...

Control Unit Organization

Control Unit Organization The Control Unit is the unit in the CPU, which controls the various components like input  & output devices, logic unit and memory. The Control Unit is the circuitry that controls or directs the component’s operations and tells them...

Pin It on Pinterest