Introduction to Computer Organization and Architecture

In this modern era, or we can say computer era, Technology from all around surrounds us. Human is conserved, connected and absorbed by Technology. From its birth to death process, human is connected with the computers. Therefore, it becomes necessary to have deep knowledge about the creation, handling, and working of computers perused to the next level of inventions in the digital world. To create new Technology, one should have basic knowledge about the working of the Technology. So, Computer Organization and Architecture provide basic knowledge of working on the Computer. It provides an answer to the question that “How computer system architecture is designed and organized?”   

Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial

Computer Organization and Architecture is a huge subject, and it’s like a mine where you learn about all the minerals of the computer organization and architecture. COA is designed to provide detailed knowledge of each component of computers and Computer’s sub component with their structure and working.

Computer Organization and Computer Architecture both are vast and different subjects. In this tutorial, the learner gets knowledge about Step by step working of the internal structure of the Computer, how it is organized, designed and how functioning is carried out digitally.

What is Computer, Organization and Architecture?

Computer – An invention of humans made to do complex and large calculations and, most importantly, store data but slowly and gradually. This technology has become an important part of human life. Computer stands for Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technologies and Educational Research. Nowadays, every personal or professional field like schools, colleges, business, sports, entertainment, games, research field and several more fields working is incomplete without Computers. 

Organization – Term organization means classifying things or putting together logically to carry out a task. Organizing equipment together to do work systematically. 

Architecture – The way of designing anything or creating visualization on the real platform is called Architecture.

How Computer Organization and Computer Architecture are different in various criteria?

Rather there is a huge difference between Computer organization and Computer architecture, but the distinction between both is difficult to define precisely. There is a thin line between them. So now we are going to define both of them.

Computer Organization

Computer organization is used to study the basic computer hardware structure and behavior of digital Computers. It answers the question,” How operations are carried out in Computer?”

CO contains the system’s operational units such as CPU, Memory, Input-Output Unit, and their interconnections. It also covers Computer Evolution and Arithmetic, Parallel organization, Control Unit, interfaces between computer peripherals, memory technology used, registers, Bus working and connection, etc. In short, we can say that Computer Organization covers all computer hardware units and their interconnections.

Computer Architecture

The architecture refers to those attributes of the system visible to the programmer or those attributes that directly impact the program’s logical execution. It deals with the functional behavior of the computer system seen by the user. Computer architecture says to us, “How fast we can run our system hardware.”

Computer Architecture deals with the system’s programming part, such as the number of bits used to represent the various data types, input-output methods, techniques for addressing memory, and the Computer’s instruction set. The execution of any program is affected by these qualities of architecture. The change in a bit or size can lead to a different result for the programmer.

Benefits and Importance of studying Computer Organization and Architecture.

  • COA is necessary to understand the designing and functioning of the various components to process information digitally.
  • COA study focuses on the Interface between hardware and software.
  • COA tells the way of operating hardware components and their interconnections in Computer.
  • COA provides an organized way of working with different hardware components together in one place.
  • Computer organization says, “How to do?” and computer architecture says, “What to do?”
  • COA provides detailed knowledge of the system components, Circuit designs, Structure of Instruction, Computer arithmetic, Assembly programming, processor control, logical design, and performance method.
  • COA proves that different computer organizations can use the same architecture. For example, Intel and AMD make X86 CPU (processor is of 86 bits), but INTEL makes its organization on X86, and AMD makes its own, which means the processor is 86 bits. Still, internal circuits, working, interconnections will be different. 
  • COA subject helps the computer engineers to understand the components functioning, working, characteristics, performance, and their interactions.

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