Architecture of Database Management System

DBMS architecture helps in development, implementation, design, and maintenance of a database that store and organize information for agencies, businesses, and institutions. It is the base of any database management system, which allows it to perform the functions effectively and efficiently. The whole concept of DBMS depends upon its architecture. It can be designed as centralized, decentralized, or hierarchical.
The database management system architecture can be seen as either a single-tier or multi-tier, but logically, it can be of two types: 2-tier architecture and 3- tier architecture.

Architecture of Database Management System

1-tier Architecture

In 1-tier architecture, the database is directly available to the DBMS user for executing the SQL queries and storing data in it. Any changes or updates that are done here will be reflected directly to the database in the database management system.
Generally, 1-tier architecture is used for the development of applications where a programmer or developer directly communicates with the database for a quick response.

tier Architecture

2-tier Architecture

The 2-tier Architecture of DBMS is based on a client-server machine. In this type of architecture, applications on the client-side can interact directly with the database at the server-side. For this interaction between client and the server, application programming interface (API) like Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) and Java Database Connectivity (JDBC).
This architecture gives poor performance when there are a large number of users at the client machine to access the database.

Examples of 2-tier architecture are Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, etc.

2-tier Architecture

3-tier Architecture

The DBMS 3-tier architecture consists of another layer between the client and the server. In this architecture, the client cannot directly interact with the server. Its features, such as data backup, recovery, security, and concurrency control make it the most commonly used architecture for designing the database management system.
The 3-tier architecture consists of the following layers:

  • Presentation layer: This layer is also known as the client layer. It is the front end layer in the 3-tier architecture and consists of a user interface. The main purpose of this layer is to communicate with the application layer.
  • Application layer: This layer is also known as the business logic layer. It acts as a middle layer between the client and the database server for exchange of partially processed data.
  • Database layer: The data or information is stored in this layer. This layer contains a method to connect with the database and to perform operations such as insert, update, and delete.
3-tier Architecture

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