Hibernate vs. JPA

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What is JPA?

JPA stands for Java Persistence API, which defines a set of functionalities, standards, and concepts to the ORM tool. It is a framework used to manage relational databases. It is available in the javax.persistence package. JPA is an open-source framework and was first released on May 2006. There are many enterprise vendors like Oracle, Eclipse, etc. which provide new JPA products.

To decrease the line of codes for relational object management, a coder must follow the “JPA Framework,” which easily allows interaction with the database.

What is Hibernate?

Hibernate is an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) tool which reduces the difficulty in the application development. Hibernate provides a framework that interacts with the data stored in the databases. It also uses the specifications of the Java Persistence API (JPA) and is an open-source ORM tool. It supports almost all databases. Hibernate is licensed by GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).

What is the need for JPA?

The JPA (Java Persistence API) provides a feature, by which we can switch an application from one ORM tool to another.

Difference between Hibernate and JPA

        Criteria                    Hibernate                       JPA
Usage Hibernate is an ORM (Object Relational Mapping) tool used to communicate with the database. JPA (Java Persistence API) is a specification that describes the interface for the object-relational mapping.
Purpose Hibernate is a Java framework used to reduce the difficulties in the application development. The main aim of JPA is to allow developers to perform database operations much faster and efficiently.
Implementation Manager In Hibernate, the Session interface is the standard API for handling persistence in applications.  In JPA, EntityManager is the standard for implementation.
Package The core classes and interfaces of Hibernate is available in the org.hibernate package. The core classes and interfaces of JPA is available in the javax.persistence package.
Query Language Hibernate has its query language called Hibernate Query Language (HQL) for database interaction. JPA uses a platform-independent query language called Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL).
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