COA Tutorial

Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial Basic Terminologies Related to COA Digital Number System Computer Organization and Architecture Data Formats Fixed and Floating-Point Number IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers Control Unit Organization Data Path, ALU and Control Unit Micro-Operations CPU Registers Addressing Modes COA: Interrupt and its types Instruction Cycle: Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Pipelining and Pipeline Hazards Pipelining: Computer Organization and Architecture Machine Instructions 8085 instructions set 8085 Pin Configuration Addressing mode in 8085 microprocessor Advantages and Disadvantages of Flash Memory BCD to 7 Segment Decoder Biconnectivity in a Graph Bipartite Graph CarryLook Ahead Adder Control Signals in 8155 Microprocessor Convert a number from base 2 to base 6 Ethernet Frame Format Local Broadcast Address and loopback address Microprocessor classification Use Case Diagram for the online bank system 8086 Microprocessor Pin Configurations 8255 Microprocessor Operating Modes Flag Register of 8086 Microprocessor Data Transfer and Manipulation 8085 Arithmetic Instructions Assembly Language Register What is Cache Associativity? Auxiliary Memory in COA Associative Memory in Computer Architecture SCSI Bus in Computer Architecture What are Registers in Microprocessor What is Associative Memory 1 Persistent CSMA What is Floating-Point Representation in Computer Architecture? What is a Serial Port in a Computer? What is Cluster Computing What is Batch Processing in Computer Advantages of Client Server Architecture Spooling Meaning in Computer System Magnetic Core Memory Magnetic Ink Card Reader Decision Making Tools and Techniques Digital Electronics using Semiconductor Memory What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture? What is Hardwired Control Unit? Definition of Diodes in Electronics Advantages of FSK Web Server Architecture How the OS interfaces between the user, apps, hardware? Discuss the I/O Interface in Computer Architecture Difference between Internal Fragmentation and External Fragmentation MDR in Computer Architecture What is ESS? What is Gray code What is Parity Check? Firewall in E-Commerce Fragmentation in Computer Diskette Controller Handshaking in Computer Architecture Memory Interleaving

How the OS interfaces between the user, apps, hardware?


Operating systems (OS) play an important role as intermediaries between users, applications, and hardware components, facilitating seamless interaction and functionality. The user interface (UI) allows users to interact with the operating system and programs through graphical elements or the command line. Application programming interfaces (APIs) enable applications to communicate with the operating system, accessing hardware resources such as memory, storage, and processing power. The OS efficiently manages hardware resources, allocating them to applications as needed for optimal performance. Furthermore, device drivers facilitate communication between hardware and software components, ensuring effective functioning of devices such as printers and graphics cards. Overall, OS interfaces are essential for the smooth operation of computers and devices, enhancing user experience and productivity.

A modern computer comprises of the following:

  • One or more processors
  • Main memory
  • Disks
  • Printers
  • Various input/output devices.

So, to control all of these components, we need a layer of software in the computer system, which we name the Operating System.
An operating system is a program that serves as an intermediate or interface between a computer user and its hardware.
It is the most fundamental sort of system software in computer systems. Without an operating system, the user is unable to run computer applications.

The following is the structure of an operating system:

How the OS interfaces between the user, apps, hardware?/>
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<p>The operating system functions similarly to a government in a country, controlling, supervising, and assisting the country. It manages all computer components and aids in the proper execution of applications. In addition, the operating system restricts which users can access a resource in order to avoid disputes that arise when multiple users use the same resource.</p>
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An operating system, commonly known as an OS, is a software that governs computer hardware while simultaneously serving as a foundation for application programs & acting as an intermediate between computer users and computer hardware. Here are some examples of popular operating systems nowadays.

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<p>The first is your Windows, which you may be using in your desktop or laptops, so it is one of the famous operating systems used by many people, and then we have Linux and Ubuntu, which are also two open-source operating systems that are widely used in your desktops, laptops, and other devices, and then we have the Mac OS, which is the operating system from Apple, so in their laptops or in their mac books, they used Mac OS X, and then in iPhones, we find iOS operating systems. So Android is a popular operating system for mobile devices.</p>
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<p>To help us understand what an operating system is and what it does, I've included a diagram that depicts the basic structure or components of a computer system.</p>
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<img src=Function of the Operating System

The first and most important role of an operating system is to serve as an interface between the user and hardware. It serves as an interface between the user and the hardware, with resource allocation coming second. So, I have told you what I mean by resources. Here, we mean the hardware that we have, such as the central processor unit, RAM, and input/output devices. So, when I or other users wish to use other resources. As a result, they must be apportioned, as our resources are limited. We have limited resources; hence we have restricted hardware. So, the operating system determines how these resources should be shared to users so that everyone gets their fair share and the system runs efficiently. So, it assigns resources to different users or processes in an efficient manner, which is the operating system's function, and then it manages memory, secures it, and so on. So, even when we were typing in this word processor, we had to first load it into main memory and then store it to secondary memory or the hard disc. How memory is controlled. So, the operating system controls how and where things are kept, as well as how securely they are done. So, these are some of the primary functions of the operating system.


So, first and foremost, at the lowest level, we have computer hardware. What exactly is computer hardware? Computer hardware consists of resources such as a central processing unit (CPU), memory, and I/O devices (input/output devices). So, your resources include processing units, CPU, and RAM. Memory is divided into two types: primary memory (RAM) and secondary memory (ROMs). So initially, let's talk about our memory and I/O devices. An I/O device refers to the input/output devices. These are the devices you utilize to either provide input to your system or get output from it. So, examples of input devices include keyboards, mice, and microphones. These are the devices that you use to input into the system, and output devices are the devices that you use to obtain output out of your systems, such as monitors or speakers, which provide you with output or show you or make you hear it. These are your output devices; thus, everything is considered computer hardware.

Application programs

Application programs reside on top of the operating system in the hierarchy of a computer system. System software, including the operating system itself, serves as the foundation upon which application programs operate. Application software encompasses a wide range of programs designed to fulfil specific user tasks or functions, such as word processors, web browsers, and multimedia players. These programs leverage the services provided by the operating system, interacting with hardware through the OS's interfaces. Thus, while the operating system manages the computer's resources and provides essential services, application programs utilize these resources to perform tasks tailored to the user's needs.