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ICAO FULL FORM

Introduction:

The Full Form of ICAO is “INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION”.

As an agency specializing in aviation within the UN, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) promotes the preparation and growth of international air transport to guarantee its safe and orderly progress. It also integrates the principles and practices of international air navigation.

the ICAO Board develops standards and recommended practices including air navigation, its structures, flight verification, preventing illegal activities, and facilitating border-crossing processes for international civil aviation. The Convention on Global Civil Aviation established the procedures that must be followed by transport safety authorities of signatory nations' during the investigating aviation accidents.

The ICAO's technical authority is called the Air Navigation Commission (ANC). The ICAO Council appoints 19 commissioners to the commission, who are selected by the member states. Despite being appointed by states, commissioners are impartial professionals who are not affiliated with the states or any political party. Under the official framework of ICAO Panels, the ANC oversees the development of International Standards along with Recommended Practices. Standards that have been agreed upon by the commission are passed on to the ICAO's legislative body, the council, for member-state interaction and discussion before final approval.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is unique among the world's air transport companies, primarily because it is the only one with international authority among signatory states. Other organizations falling under this category include the Airports Council International, a trade group of airport authorities, the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a trade collaboration corresponding to airlines, and the Civil Air Navigation Services Organization (CANSO), an organization for air navigation service providers (ANSPs).

History:

20th century:

The International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) was the predecessor to ICAO. Eight nations attended its inaugural conference in Berlin, Germany, in 1903 but, no deals were made. The second convention, held in Berlin 1906, witnessed the participation of twenty-seven nations. During third convention in London in 1912, the initial radio call signs for aircraft usage were assigned. ICAN maintained its operations until 1945.

Fifty-two nations signed the Convention of Chicago, also known as the Convention on International Civil Aviation, in Chicago on December 7, 1944. As per the agreement, a temporary International Civil Aviation body was to be formed, and after 26 countries signed the convention, a permanent organization was to take its place. On June 6, 1945, PICAO took over from ICAN to initiate operations. It wasn't until March 5, 1947, that the 26th nation accepted the convention, leading to dissolution of PICAO on April 4, 1947, and the establishment of ICAO, starting activities on the same day.

ICAO was incorporated into the UN as an agency of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in October 1947.

21st Century:

Qatar proposed to become the Organization's new permanent seat in April 2013, indicating concerns about Montreal’s cold winters, distance from Europe and Asia," and difficulties for applying Canadian visa. However, after an additional proposal to the ICAO governing council to relocate the organization's triennial convention to Doha was rejected by a vote of 22–14, Qatar abandoned its candidacy about a month later.

Taiwan controversy:

In Jan 2020, a number of Twitter users (including journalists, think-tank experts, and staff members of the US Congress) who tagged Taiwan within the tweets on ICAO were blocked by the organization. A significant number of tweets discussed the COVID-19 epidemic and Taiwan's removal from ICAO health and safety advisories as a result of Chinese pressure. In revenge, the ICAO tweeted that the "precluded" publication of "compromising, irrelevant along with offensive material" was about to happen.

After that incident, the company has blocked anyone who inquires about it.

The House Committee on Foreign Affairs of the United States severely criticized ICAO for what it considered to be a failure to respect the values of equity, inclusivity, and transparency by suppressing non-disruptive disagreements.

Anthony Philbin, the ICAO Secretary General's chief of communications, responded to criticism of the organization's handling of the circumstances in January 2020 by stating that "We felt we were totally warranted in implementing the steps we performed to uphold the integrity of the information and debates our followers should reasonably expect from our feeds."

The United States Department of State harshly criticized the decisions of ICAO in its press release on February 1, 2020, calling them "unacceptable, outrageous, as well as not befitting of a UN organization."

Exclusion of Taiwan:

  1. One of ICAO's original members was the Republic of China. The People's Republic of China finally took its place as China's official representative after it withdrew to Taiwan in 1971.
  2. For the very first time, Taiwan received an invitation to participate as an invitee in the 38th meeting of the ICAO Assembly, going by the name "Chinese Taipei." Because of fresh pressure from the PRC, as of September 2019, it was not invited to take part once more.
  3. Taiwan's admission into the ICAO is supported by the host nation, Canada. The commercial community in Canada also supports Taiwan's inclusion. In 2019, the president of the Air Transport Association of Canada stated, "From a strictly functional and non-political perspective view, I believe that Taiwan should be there."

Air Navigation Commission:

The Air Navigation Commission (ANC), the professional executive body of ICAO Council's, is responsible for 17 of the Chicago Convention's 19 annexes. For these Annexes, ANC creates and recommends ICAO minimal requirements. Three times a year, the commission convenes to assess and complete the ongoing developments. Every meeting typically examines many documents that are the products of ANC panels of experts. Nineteen commissioners representing a variety of aviation fields have been appointed by ICAO States to make up the ANC. However, from a legal perspective, these commissioners are not allowed to speak for their state or any other state or territory. In the best interests of the whole international civil aviation community, they must act independently. Up to eight participants from the civil aviation sector and a few more ICAO State representatives may also be allowed to attend ANC meetings as monitors.

International Civil Aviation Day:

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) declared 1994 to be the first International Civil Aviation Day. In 1996, the UN officially sanctioned it. The day's goal is to raise awareness of international civil aviation along with its importance to country economies and societies.

International Civil Aviation Organization and India:

India participated in the Chicago Conference in 1944 and has served as a member of the ICAO council since that time. It was also a member of the Provisional ICAO from 1944 to 1947 and is regarded as one of the organization's founding members. India has kept a permanent representative at the ICAO's Montreal headquarters.

ICAO issues in the news:

Recent issues involving Pakistan’s denial of India access to its airspace has been raised by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  • On October 28, 2019, India requested overflight permission from Pakistan so that the Prime Minister's plane may travel to Saudi Arabia.
  • Pakistan refused the request, citing alleged violations of human rights in Jammu and Kashmir.

Passport Standards:

  1. ICAO has established standards passports that can be read by machines. In order to facilitate faster processing of passports by border controllers along with other law enforcement officials, machine-readable passports feature an area where some of the information that would normally be expressed in the form of text is also written as strings of alphanumeric characters, displayed in a way that's suitable for optical character recognition.
  2. Document 9303 Machine Understandable Travel Documents contains the ICAO's technological standard for machine-readable passports.
  3. Biometric passports are covered by a more contemporary standard. They have biometrics in them to verify traveller's identities. Similar to data saved on smart cards, the passport's vital information is kept on a small RFID computer chip. To protect the validity of the passport, including the biometric data, the passport book layout requires an implanted contactless chip that can store digital signature data, similar to some smart cards.

Roles and Responsibilities of ICAO:

The following are the responsibilities and duties of ICAO:

  1. In order to ensure safe and orderly expansion, it modifies the fundamentals and procedures of international air navigation as well as promotes the development along planning of international aviation.
  2. Air navigation rules and recommended practices are adopted by the ICAO Council.
  3. It is in charge of preventing unauthorized intervention.
  4. Its responsibility is to facilitate international civil aviation's border-crossing procedures.
  5. The Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation sets the procedures for aviation accident investigation that transport safety agencies in signatory nations embrace.

Conclusion:

ICAO which is known as International Civil Aviation Organization. This tutorial details about the ICAO along with its history, roles and responsibities.