Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks


The term "internetworking," which combines the terms "inter" and "networking," refers to the connection between two or more completely unconnected segments or nodes. Intermediary hardware, like routers or gateways, enables communication between the devices. The network for bachelor's degrees was formerly known as Catenet. Regular connectivity between public, commercial, business, industrial, and governmental networks exists. Thus, internetwork may comprise multiple smaller networks connected by networking hardware that acts as a larger network. The term "internetworking" describes the kinds of business, goods, and strategies used to manage the difficult task of creating and managing Internet works. Several major issues, including disconnected LANs, redundant supply, and a lack of network administration expertise, have impacted the development of internetworking. Transmission problems occurred across utterly different divisions and workplaces due to segregated LANs.

Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks

Originally, to facilitate communication, a network comprising each node or phase was built using an analogous protocol or communication logic, such as the Internet Protocol (IP) or Transfer Control Protocol (TCP). "Internetworking" is the term used to describe any network that continuously uses protocols for communication with another network. The challenge of delivering a single stream of data over several connections is one internetworking was designed to solve.

There is very little difference between network growth and Internetworking. One simple method of growing a local area network (LAN) is to use a hub or switching device to join two adjacent networks connected by a router. It serves as a basic illustration of internetworking. Layer 3 (the Network Layer) of the OSI-ISO architecture mandates internetworking. The Internet is a particularly noteworthy and well-known example of internetworking.

Duplicate resources, separate LANs, and the need for network administration seem to be the main causes of the emergence of internetworking. Transmission problems happen when using isolated LANs between completely different offices or divisions. Repetitive assets require a steady supply of hardware and software and a diverse workforce for every organization or division. Although there was no centralized method for maintaining or troubleshooting networks, network administration was lacking.

Three main components make up Internetworking:

  1. Extranet
  2. Intranet
  3. Internet

The three primary elements of internetworking are the extranet, the Internet, and the Intranet.

Intranets and extranets may or may not have internet connections. Because there is a connection point for that, the computer network or extranet area unit is usually prohibited from connecting to the Internet when it does not have permission. The Internet isn't regarded as a component of a computer's network or extranet, even though it should serve as a gateway, providing access to particular areas of the associate degree extranet.


It describes a network within an internetwork with a limited scope connected by a particular institution or organization but with intermittent, limited links to several distinct networks. However, this isn't always how things work out. This is arguably the least intensive Internet use and is frequently prohibited in remote locations. On the other hand, an extranet must only include one reference to an external network rather than a single local area network. A MAN, WAN, or other type of network can also be used to identify an extranet.

Extranets are sometimes viewed as an extension or a subset of the Intranet. Extranets are usually websites or platforms catering to a user base outside the corporation. This is because information from an extranet is frequently controlled via internal networks. Although information on an extranet is accessible to those outside the company, access is strictly controlled and granted to authorize personnel only.

Advantages of using an Extranet

Extranets have several advantages compared to companies, employees, and outside partners:

  • Enhanced engagement and communication Extranets provide a platform for sharing important information pertinent to all parties involved, such as announcements or updates. Increased involvement and engagement with coworkers and external partners could be the outcome of this strategy.
  • Enhanced efficacy to produce goods and complete projects, startups and established businesses of all stripes regularly work with various partners and outside sources.
  • Better communication and knowledge exchange before creating popular team collaboration apps like Asana, Trello, and Jira, organizations mostly depended on extranets and intranets for improved communication. The method made working with confidential projects or business data possible, guaranteeing effective real-time document and modification sharing.

Disadvantages of using an Extranet

There are a few further drawbacks to extranets:

  • Capital costs: Setting up and maintaining an extranet might take time and resources. The cost includes hiring IT staff to design and manage it and deploying hardware and software locally. Therefore, an extranet might not be the best option for businesses that don't have the funding to set it up and keep it running. Extranets like M.S. that are maintained or stored in the cloud may reduce some initial costs.
  • Data protection: Safety measures must be taken when running an extranet. Insufficient protections could allow unregistered persons to have control of confidential information. This strategy might result in losing private or sensitive data and a competitive edge.
  • Internal specialists are the most qualified to maintain extranets since their efforts may lessen the risk of data leaks.


An intranet is a secure network that enables employees to manage papers, share calendars, and arrange to-do lists. It usually functions in a client-server model within a local area network. Every computer connected to an intranet has a MAC address and a LAN connection. It functions as an identification number that may be used to locate the system.

This computer network may consist of interconnected networks that use IP-based applications, such as web browsers and file transfer programs, and the Internet Protocol; these networks are all managed by the same administrative organization. The computer network is only accessible to a limited number of customers and is inaccessible to everybody else in the cosmos. Usually, this network refers to the internal network of a business or organization. A private internet server is usually required to provide browsable data to users of a large computer network.

Advantages of Intranet

The following are the advantages of intranets:

  • Easy, quick, and inexpensive to implement
  • Founded on freely available standards
  • Permits communication with other systems
  • Information both internally and externally accessible
  • Enhances Interaction

Disadvantages of Intranet

The following are the disadvantages of intranet use:

  • The risk of information sharing and control loss
  • Unauthorized entry
  • Limited bandwidth available to the company
  • Overwhelming information reduces productivity
  • Unknown or concealed expenses and complexity


One type of global Internetworking that connects public, academic, governmental, and private networks is the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), which is part of the U.S. ARPA, developed by the Department of Defense and is its cornerstone. It also functions as a portion of the World Wide Web (WWW) and is generally called the "Internet" to distinguish it from other relevant Internetworking. Internet consumers and their service providers use IP addresses produced by address registries overseeing implementations.

Advantages of Internet

The following are the advantages of using the Internet:

  • The Internet has developed into a global computer network that spans multiple regions.
  • Facilitates the sending and receiving of documents between computers by users;
  • Allows users to send emails from any location;
  • It makes it possible for small, medium, and large firms to offer their goods for little money.
  • It offers access to global data sources.
  • It informs users of all the most recent developments in technology.
  • It has also enabled users to interact with others who share their interests in online groups, chat rooms, webpages, and other places.

Disadvantages of Internet

The following are some negative aspects of utilizing the Internet:

  • It allows people to express themselves freely about anything without hindrance or censure. That may damage the vulnerable brains.
  • Certain fake news may appear in search engine results.
  • Face-to-face contacts may be replaced by online collaborations, depriving us of the human element.
  • It is draining to spend time working or on the Internet.
  • Having access to the Internet makes us lazy regarding routine things like finding the best place to stay or the closest restaurant.

Internetwork Addressing

Installed units can be accessed individually or collectively over the network. Different addressing strategies apply depending on the OSI layer and protocol family. DLL, MAC, and network-layer addresses are the three Internet address area units most frequently used.

  • DLL Addresses: A data-link layer address can identify each physical network relationship of a network device. In data-link addresses, area units function as hardware or physical addresses. Nonetheless, there are situations in which data-link addresses are pre-configured through an established connection to a particular item and are found in a flat address space. Final systems often have a single data connection address since they have a single physical network interaction. Due to their multiple physical network connections, routers and other internetworking equipment can occasionally have different data-link addresses.
  • MAC Addresses: MAC addresses further contain data-link layer addresses. IEEE MAC addresses are used in LANs to establish network identities at the data-link layer. The unique MAC address of each local network link designates a specific area unit. Twelve hexadecimal digits, or 48 bits, make up a MAC address. The product's manufacturer or seller can be identified by the Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI), which comprises the first 12 hexadecimal bits and is typically handled by the IEEE.

The next twelve positioning digits may represent a different type of pricing set by a specific store or the interface serial variety. Burned-in addresses (abbreviated as BIAs) are MAC addresses frequently routed into RAM from ROM during interface card activation.

  • Network Layer Addresses: The more popular virtual or logical address area units and gradable address areas can occasionally contain network addresses. Generally, the characteristics that define a real network or group without a physical foundation are employed. Both logically and dynamically, the instrument and network address are coupled. A network-layer address is necessary for each network-layer protocol that the system as a whole provides. Routers and other internetworking devices need a distinct network-layer address for each approved network-layer protocol to access the associated physical network association.

Challenges to Internetworking

Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks

Because of its complexity and the variety of systems and technologies involved, internetworking presents several issues. Among the difficulties are:

  • Scalability: The network must support increasing demands, data volumes, and traffic without experiencing significant performance degradation as the number of devices and users on it rises. Effective network scalability design is an ongoing challenge.
  • Security: Malicious actors have a larger potential attack surface as networks get more interconnected. An important consideration in internetworking is safeguarding networks against viruses, unauthorized access, data breaches, and other online threats.
  • Reliability and Redundancy: Networks must have a high degree of dependability to reduce downtime and interruptions. Implementing failover systems and redundancy techniques to guarantee uninterrupted operation in the event of breakdowns is difficult yet vital.
  • Interoperability: Various networks and devices commonly use diverse protocols, standards, and technologies. Ensuring seamless communication and compatibility amongst these various components can be challenging. While issues can still arise, these holes have been filled in part by protocols like TCP/IP.
  • Network Management: Network management and monitoring get more difficult as they become more complicated. Continuous tasks include ensuring appropriate resource allocation, optimizing performance, and effectively diagnosing and troubleshooting difficulties.
  • Resource Management: Managing network resources effectively to guarantee peak performance can be challenging, particularly in shared environments. This covers duties like allocating bandwidth and managing congestion.

Advantages of Internetworking

  • Enhanced connectivity: New services and applications are made feasible by enabling equipment from different networks to communicate via internetworking, increasing connectivity.
  • Remote resource access: By enabling users to access information and services logically located on different networks, internetworking improves accessibility and flexibility.
  • Internetworking, which involves exchanging printers, servers, and storage devices, makes resource sharing possible.
  • Allowing several devices to share resources could save costs and boost output.
  • Because internetworking enables individuals and groups to work together more productively regardless of where they are physically situated, collaboration has improved.

Disadvantages of Internetworking

Working online can result in security lapses, increasing the risk of information breaches and cyberattacks. Many interconnected networks make it harder to keep everything safe since they give hackers more places to enter the system.

  • Complexity: Establishing and maintaining an internetworking network can seem challenging and call for specific abilities. Prices may increase as a result, and maintenance tasks may increase.
  • Performance concerns: Internetworking can lead to performance problems when networks aren't properly designed and set up. Delays in response times and slow network performance could result from this.
  • Compatibility issues: When working across numerous networks that use different protocols or technologies, internetworking may lead to compatibility issues. Integrating different systems could be difficult, and it might take more resources to correct them.