Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

Quality of Service in Computer Networks


In the ever-growing world of computer networks, it is hard to stay ahead, but resource optimization and performance should be of utmost concern. Quality of Service (QoS) becomes then the most important parameter for success.

Understanding Quality of Service

Quality of Service (QoS), a concept signifying network ability to extend different priority levels to diverse applications, users, or data flows, is the baseline. In other words, it is a form of supervision of network resources in order to grant a given quality level in terms of performance, reliability, and efficiency according to predetermined parameters or service agreements. QoS mechanisms have the task of mitigating problems like packet loss, latency, and jitter which subsequently boost the user experience level and leads to an appropriate utilization of the network.

Components of Quality of Service

Bandwidth Management

  • The way bandwidth is assigned is one of the main features of QoS implementation. It implies allocating bandwidth according to different apps or users based on their priority levels or for some special requirements.
  • Kinds of traffic shaping, traffic policing and traffic scheduling enable effective bandwidth allocation for all participants, preventing traffic jam in the network.

Traffic Prioritization

  • QoS helps to segregate or put network traffic into different sets of classes which are arranged according to their importance or specific features.
  • By the use of techniques like DiffServ (Differentiated Services) or IEEE 802.1p/Q (QoS standards for Ethernet network), critical applications will receive preferential treatment over the insensitive ones, each according to priority.

Packet Queuing and Scheduling

  • Queuing policies determine which packets are shipped first from the network buffer to the point of outgoing interface.
  • Techniques such as Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ), Class-Based Queuing (CBQ), and Priority Queuing (PQ) enable the priority handling of traffic so that delayed packets are minimized while resource utilization is well managed.

Implementation Strategies

Traffic Classification and Marking

  • Deep packet Inspection (DPI) and classification algorithms are the tools that network managers use to categorize and identify the incoming traffic.
  • After being assigned to a class, the packets are tagged with quality-of-service indicators that routers and switches can use to sort and process them as necessary.

Traffic Policing and Shaping

  • Traffic policing functions through accomplishing the task of monitoring the traffic flow through establishing compliance with passive QoS policies.
  • Shaping of traffic regulates the traffic rate by storing and slowing data packets, in that they must fit pre-configured traffic profiles and bandwidth restrictions.

Congestion Management

  • Congestion occurs when the incoming traffic into the network outweighs the available resources and the performance is no longer satisfactory as packets keep dropping.
  • Congestion management is essential and its purpose is achieved through QoS mechanisms such as Random Early Detection (RED), Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) and Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) by dynamically adjusting packet drop probabilities and signalling congestion to endpoints.

Impact of Quality of Service

Enhanced User Experience

  • QoS mechanisms effectively help in distinguishing critical applications from the rest of the traffic in a network, disrupting the user experience, through ensuring consistent performance and prioritizing critical applications especially for applications like VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) and video conferencing.
  • Very small latency and jitter provide a higher-quality communication experience and more rapid utilization, which in turn boost productivity and user satisfaction.

Efficient Resource Utilization

  • QoS enables more effective use of network resources, which is achieved by allocating bandwidth depending on application requirements and prioritization of users.
  • As part of intelligent traffic management and congestion avoidance strategies which prioritize quality of service, QoS reduces resource wastage and increases network efficiency even in situations when traffic is high.

Support for Diverse Applications

  • Today, networks are enabled with many applications that have different levels of requests as well as sensitivity to network conditions.
  • The QoS provisions, in accommodation of this diversity, provide for customized solutions for varied traffic types i.e. the latency-sensitive multimedia streams and the bulk data transfers while enhancing throughput for all applications in a uniform manner.


QoS implementation guarantees that networks are capable of sustaining their performance under the increased demands being posed. Bandwidth management, traffic prioritization, and congestion handling are the main quality of services mechanisms (QoS) features that help networks to adapt to growing user bases and application needs without hampering the quality of service.

Compliance and Service Level Agreements (SLAs)

QoS is central to both agreement with the level of service and meeting the requirements of regulators. Through the implementation of the strategy that guarantees the stable performance and coverage of the most important applications, the organizations can be sure to meet the needs of customers, partners, and regulatory bodies. QoS provides the essential mechanisms of tracking and reporting for monitoring network functionality ensuring smooth administrative procedures.

Cost Optimization

Thriftier resource utilization and enhanced network performance that can be accomplished through QoS implementation lead to reduced expenses for organizations. QoS achieves the optimized utilization of network resources by prioritizing critical applications and carefully managing bandwidth usage. As a result, capital costs are reduced and operational expenses are cut, enabling higher return on investments.

Future proofing

Going forward, technology will continue to innovate in areas such as networking creating more demand for quality networks with better performance. Through the application of QoS standards and an ongoing amendment of implementation practices, organizations are developing their networking to be prepared for the challenges of the future as well as to be able to incorporate new technologies that are to come.

Competitive Advantage

Organizations that place quality of service (QoS) at the top of their agenda gain a competitive advantage through the provision of enhanced user experiences, good usage of resources, and keep on top of the emerging network needs. Through making use of the QoS to enhanced e-business performance, productivity and reliability, companies can be distinctively differentiated, and customers can be more effortlessly and effectively be attracted and retained.

Continuous Improvement

Implementing QoS, one should follow the cumulative concept of optimization and enhancement. The effectiveness of QoS mechanisms can be revealed through continuous monitoring network performance, getting user feedback and evaluating the effect of these steps on user satisfaction, thus the improvement of the QoS process may be guided and achieved.

Collaboration and Innovation

QoS helps create a platform suitable for partnerships and innovation since the information transfer and communication is carried out in a safe and constant environment. Through maintaining networks with an acceptable level for mission-critical traffic such as video conferencing and real-time collaboration, QoS assists teams around the world to realize their potential regardless of their location places fostering creativity and innovation.

Risk Mitigation

A quality QoS implementation brings in reduced chances of network disruptions in the form of congestion, packet loss, and latency. This helps in network management through mitigation of consequences. Network administrators will be able to keep up with the working of the resources and prioritize a key flow of transportation in order to minimize the damage of an unplanned incidence and maintain business continuity in case of challenging conditions.

Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

Finally, when QoS accomplishes this, then what is should be done is an outstanding experience of a user which exceeds expectations of customers. Via seamless and efficient network connectivity, companies optimize customer experience which leads to a trusting relationship with their customers by doing so. Happy customers being recurrent clients of this company shall refer it to others so that business will be growing for this company.

Environmental Impact

The green technique of QoS and use of resources provides the environmental benefits as well. Through the reduction of energy consumption and the utilization of networks that are more efficient, these organizations will, in turn, be minimizing their carbon footprint and are, therefore, helping out in the overall sustainability progress. It is evident that QoS-guided reforms in resource allocation and traffic management, as well as the overall environmental aspects and corporate society concerns, go hand in hand.

Global Connectivity

QoS helps developing interconnectivity over the globe by making sure that quality and reliability of the distributed networks spanning various geographical region are maintained. With the trafficking of valuable applications and timely expansion of traffic flows, QoS tools also tend to the necessity of remote locations, repairing the connectivity gap for distant places of the world.

Regulatory Compliance

Compliance with the regulatory requirements is almost a necessity for the companies that work in the sectors with improper rules such as finance, health, and telecommunications. When QoS is applied, it gives the EC the ability to enforce the necessary standards by maintaining a consistent quality of data stream, accuracy of the sent information, and integrity of the network for secure transactions, which in turn causes the mitigation of the level of non-conformity to the regulation as well as the impact of potential law breaches on the aspect of business time.

Differentiation in Service Offerings

QoS supports the competition among service providers in today’s market where many providers offer same services to customers. To obtain subscribers who want top-notch QoS feature and promise for their mission-critical utility, providers must be ready to deliver the utmost performance instantly. The dependability of the various types of services such as assured services flows is the very foundation of the networking systems establishment as a provider choice in their domains of expertise.

Points and Considerations on its (QOS) Significance, Implementation, and Effect

Security Integration

In the landscape of networked systems, security now comes first. The integration of QoS with security is essential for achieving not only effective traffic control but also preventing any possible threats. Having the Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms like traffic classification and marking in place along with stronger security protocols, companies can implement policies that serve to defend against malicious activities like DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks or unauthorized access attempts this way. Furthermore, QoS can be used to give priority to the encrypted traffic allowing the crucial security measures, such as the VPN connection, to be done without affecting the security of the network.

Dynamic Adaptation

In fact, changing nature of traffic in the network requires flexible QoS schemes. Traditional QoS implications are sometimes based on static configurations that may not provide an efficient response to varied network circumstances. Although dynamic QoS mechanisms utilize real-time analytics as well as feedback loops to redirect resource allocation regarding the changing traffic patterns and user demands, they constantly revise resource allocation. The development of technologies such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and Intent-Based Networking (IBN) allows centralized control and programmable network behaviour, which helps in QoS provisioning. Such flexibility equips systems with the capability of optimal performance even during unexpected changes, thus leading to enhanced end-user satisfaction and operational efficiency.

Multi-Tenancy Support

In various environments such as cloud computing platforms or enterprise networks that serve various user groups, QoS plays a vital role in equal allocation and isolation of resources. Through QoS policies designed in a way that are specific for different tenants or user segments, organizations can avoid resource contention and therefore guarantee permanent high performance of critical applications. Using techniques like VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) tagging and traffic isolation one can achieve effective traffic segregation, while the resource prioritization on the basis of predefined (SLAs) service level agreements or the tenant-specific requirements is performed by QoS mechanisms. Such a multi-tenancy support promotes a cooperative yet controlled network environment that is suitable for those with varied requirements and that minimizes interdependency on a single domain.

Integration with Edge Computing

The arrival of edge computing paradigm makes computing power at the near end users which is crucial for low latency and high bandwidth applications. QoS integration with edge computing environments will enhance network performance by generating smart routing and data processing at the edge of the network. Edge-based QoS model allows telecommunications companies to introduce local policies to guarantee low delay usage for latency-sensitive applications like IoT devices or real-time analytics. Also, QoS enabled edge nodes provide capacity for workload handling and content caching, thus leading to responsiveness, high scalability and lessening the load on centralized infrastructures. Thanks to this smooth combination of QoS with edge computing architecture, organizations have the power to ensure users get great experience and use distributed computing to the full extent.

AI-Driven Optimization

The use of AI and ML AI revolutionizes QoS optimization with predictive analytics and decision making done autonomously. AI-powered QoS solutions utilize sophisticated algorithms to study previous traffic patterns, detect deviations, and predict network loads in the future. They are able to continuously learn from large data sets so as to dynamically adjust the QoS parameters that are in real-time, thus optimizing resources and preventing performance issues from occurring in advance. Furthermore, the QoS controllers that are AI-powered have the ability to self-adapt, i.e. modifying parameters like the packet queuing algorithms or traffic shaping policies in response to changing environmental conditions. By introducing intelligent automation, the network will not only become more efficient and scalable but the operational burden will also be reduced directly empowering the enterprises to achieve unsurpassed levels of high quality of service.

Resilience and Fault Tolerance

The QoS resilience implies the capability of the network infrastructures to keep the service levels in case of failures or outages. Through utilizing fault-tolerant design concepts and redundancy mechanisms QoS is responsible for the continuous operation and graceful degradation during adversities. There are redundant links, load-balancing strategies and failover mechanisms that protect against single failure points; and at the same time, QoS-aware routing protocols dynamically reroute the traffic to minimize downtime and optimize performance. Moreover, the effective monitoring and fault detection procedures make it possible to rapidly identify and isolate network dysfunctions, so that remediation measures can be quickly applied to normalize QoS. Thus, this resiliency-based strategy enhances the reliability of the network and thereby business continues, thereby developing confidence among the stakeholders and minimizing the risk possibilities.


The Quality of Service (QoS) represents a fundamental point in computer networks for its purpose to organize the traffic in an effective way, to prioritize the critical and important traffic and to achieve a good user experience. Through the adoption of QoS mechanisms, as well as proper deployment of implementation strategies, organizations will be able to tap into 100% of their networks’ potential, which will mean improved communication performance, higher productivity, and unconditional reliability in countries across the globe.