Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

Radio Access Network (RAN)

What is RAN?

Radio Access Network (RAN)

A radio access network, or RAN, is a network infrastructure often utilized for mobile networks. It consists of radio base stations with big antennas and is designed to wirelessly connect user equipment.

How do radio access networks work?

In modern RAN networks, radio transceivers play a crucial role in establishing connections between devices and the internet. The base stations of a public mobile network's RAN are interconnected via fiber cables, microwaves, or other technologies, consolidating signals before transmitting them to the public mobile core network—a process commonly referred to as backhaul. Additionally, contemporary RANs often integrate a controller leveraging software-defined networking (SDN) to manage the capacity and coverage of cellular devices.

The fundamental function of RAN architecture is to link devices to other regions of a network through radio signals. In current RANs, these signals are transmitted into the mobile core network and allocated by a RAN controller.

 Elements of a Radio Access Network (RAN)

Radio Access Network (RAN)

A cellular device is also known as user equipment (UE) in public radio access networks. This UE will enable a link between a base station, which has a Remote Radio Head (RHH), also known as a Remote Radio Unit (RRU), which functions as a transceiver connecting to a centralized base Band Unit (BBU) pool.

A cloud or data centre often hosts the BBU pool, composed of many nodes that evaluate incoming signals and dynamically allocate them to RHHs according to the network's requirements and available capacity through front haul connections.

For transmission via fiber or microwave backhaul lines, the BBU pool delivers the UE data to the mobile core network. The EPC, or Evolved Packet Core, integrates cellular data using internet-based protocols inside a 4G LTE public mobile network's mobile core network for additional processing.

The following elements constitute the EPC for 4G LTE wireless:

Serving Gateway (S-gateway): Delivers packets to their intended target via the network.

Packet Data Node Gateway (PGW): To offer QoS, packet inspection, and dynamic traffic efficiency, the Packet Data Node Gateway (PGW) is an interface between the LTE network and other networks.

Mobility Management Entity (MME): This entity handles the many phases a session might go through during turnover and is in charge of UE identification and authentication.

Why Do We Need Radio Access Networks?

RANs ensure highly dependable connections by facilitating LTE and 5G technologies, known for their "deterministic" wireless performance. Traditionally, major cellular providers like Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, and Sprint maintained exclusive public networks for accessing LTE or 5G. However, relying on these networks for critical data transmission often proved less favorable than using Wi-Fi due to the costs associated with data usage. Thankfully, advancements such as spectrum-sharing options like CBRS in the US now empower businesses to construct and oversee their private LTE or 5G mobile networks.

Difficulties with the 5G Radio Access Network (RAN)

Three main issues challenge the deployment of 5G:

Public views: A large portion of the opposition to 5G installations can be attributed to conspiracy theories and false information. While many people already hold phones with 5G capabilities, they frequently react to the thought of large cell towers and masts being built locally.

mmWave's challenges: Even 5G requires the speed and capacity of wireless frequencies in the mmWave (millimetre wave) band; these frequencies have a shorter range and have difficulty travelling through walls. 5G is difficult in industries and workplaces as a result.

Remote recovery: Using a cellular network, managers can constantly track and regulate the equipment in a 5G RAN, which is usually operated in restricted areas with minimal human presence. On the other hand, teams are cut off, and a truck needs to be deployed to address the problem if the cell link breaks down due to machinery breakdown or a natural disaster, which would result in significant costs and downtime.

What are the variations of RAN?

RAN (Distributed RAN)

In this standard RAN configuration, a baseband unit (BBU) and remote radio unit (RRU) are co-located at every cell site.

Radiation frequency (RF) signals are filtered, amplified, and transformed into digital data for processing by the RRU, which also determines the system's coverage.

The protocol for frontal communications between base stations and towers is CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface). The base unit (BBU) at each cell site handles the base station, servicing, and signal processing and determines the system's capacity. An interface known as backhaul is created between the BBU pool and the core node (network).

Centralized RAN, or C-RAN

With C-RAN, the cell site just contains the antenna and the RRU, and the BBU relocates to a central location.

A group of BBUs in one place is called a BBU pool.

Backhaul connects the BBU pool and the core node, whereas front haul forms an interface between the RRU and the BBU pool.

Because BBUs are centralized, C-RAN's basic advantage is that it reduces installation and maintenance costs per cell site.

Furthermore, as BBU pools can dynamically split resources across the different RRUs, interference is diminished and spectral effectiveness enhanced.

To split work, save expenses, and boost performance even further, you may divide BBUs into centralized units (CUs) and decentralized units (DUs). The midhaul serves as the DU and CU interface.

The RLC (radio link control)/MAC (medium access control) block and a portion of the PHY (physical) layer are managed by the CU using software that is installed on a COTS (commercial/customizable off-the-shelf) server.

 The RLC/MAC block is the fundamental transport unit on the air interface between the mobile device and the network.

The DU helps split up the work rather than placing it all in one BBU pool. All this aims to distribute resources between designated jobs.

The CU is software that operates the packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) and radio resource control (RRC).

The RRC performs various tasks, including broadcasting information, creating and releasing connections between user equipment and the RAN, and managing service quality.

In addition to other technical tasks, the PDCP transports user data and compresses and decompresses IP data stream headers.

The CU can be positioned at a more central aggregation location or stay at the base station. On the other hand, a DU is maintained at a base station that is not situated at an aggregation or core network point.

vRAN (Virtualized RAN) 

A kind of C-RAN called vRAN has networking features independent of the hardware on which it operates. In this instance, virtualization is used to segregate the BBU.

Additionally, the data planes, which conduct the actual data forwarding, and the control planes, which manage the data forwarding process, are separated.

This kind of RAN is frequently used in 5G technology architectures, as virtualizing the networks is necessary to satisfy 5G's use cases and efficiency needs.

How is vRAN operated?

Transforming hardware-based functions into software is referred to as network functions virtualization (NFV). NFV architectures typically employ Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware.

Once virtualized, the Radio Access Network (RAN) becomes significantly more flexible, adaptable, cost-effective, and extensible compared to its hardware-based counterpart. Virtualized RAN (vRAN) has the ability to swiftly adjust to network alterations, facilitating intelligent load balancing and on-demand resource allocation. Furthermore, vRAN enables changes without necessitating expensive hardware replacements across the entire infrastructure; instead, software updates suffice.

Moreover, upgrading the RAN software yields various benefits including enhanced network performance, safety, and connectivity. Notably, network operators can enhance security measures with a vRAN infrastructure, as vulnerabilities and other issues can be addressed through software updates rather than extensive hardware replacements. A secure network instills confidence in users, thereby attracting more consumers.

However, it's worth noting that this type of RAN places significant demands on processing power, impacting servers. This is where edge computing proves to be valuable.


Operators are altering their RAN needs and aiming for a more diverse ecosystem of providers.

"OpenRAN" refers to industry-wide standards for RAN interfaces that facilitate equipment interoperability and provide network flexibility across suppliers. (Consider O-RAN in the same light that the open designs SOSA and MOSA are bringing to their domains.)

The primary goal of OpenRAN is to provide an interoperability standard for RAN components, such as non-proprietary white box software and hardware from various suppliers.

Three primary building components comprise OpenRAN: an O-RU, an O-DU, and an O-CU.

OpenRAN standards utilizing vRAN concepts and technology are being created to help increase network malleability, enhance security, and lower costs.

By choosing OpenRAN, network operators can avoid being forced to use a single vendor's proprietary hardware and software. As a result, there is greater opportunity for competition and innovation, lower equipment prices, and enhanced network performance as more suppliers may offer the essential components and innovative services.

Customers may mix and match components from many suppliers without being restricted to using just one because of the OpenRAN Alliance, which also provides open software for the RAN and helps its members integrate and verify their implementations.

5G and RAN Technologies

The quantity of data available has increased dramatically every day. Massive amounts of data are being created and sent as devices become increasingly integrated with the wider network and with each other.

RAN virtualization, or vRANs, is necessary for 5G connections linked with edge computers because 5G requires higher levels of automation, visibility, and flexibility than can be achieved with traditional hardware-based RANs.

Since mobile phone users and, more importantly, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are increasing demands on 5G networks, the network's capacity to grow and effectively adapt to changing conditions will become critical.

Network managers must remotely update a vRAN to accommodate technological advancements. This is an essential component, given that the underlying technology in 5G RANs is anticipated to undergo important changes in the upcoming years.

RAN is essential to facilitate the quick flow of data to user devices and core networks. A distributed, centralized, virtualized, or open infrastructure can alter and modify RAN to meet the needs of various operators and technological advancements.

By utilizing network virtualization, Trenton's high-performance computers may handle numerous RAN setups in a hyper-converged environment on the same piece of hardware.

This facilitates remote device administration, lowers hardware costs and downtime, and enhances overall connection.

The unequalled performance of the many RAN versions will benefit a wide range of factories, helping to maximize efficiency, save costs, and boost flexibility for various use cases and applications.

A new approach to 5G deployments

Transitioning from 4G to 5G presents unique challenges, necessitating a fresh approach. While small-cell technology holds immense promise, its widespread adoption is hindered by the absence of standardized protocols. Fortunately, the Small Cell Forum (SCF), consisting of prominent industry players such as AT&T, Cisco, Qualcomm, and Samsung, is spearheading efforts to establish uniform definitions and guidelines for 5G small cell networks.

In its study, the SCF underscores the importance of vendor-neutral hardware that can seamlessly adapt to various 5G use cases. Standardizing hardware across small cell networks streamlines architectural design and planning processes. By ensuring compatibility with the same 5G interface, multifunctional devices that integrate networking capabilities, out-of-band access, and support for third-party applications not only reduce costs but also simplify maintenance efforts.

The best application for a 5G tiny cell network is a smart city. Given that wireless clients are crammed into densely populated regions, a full mast shouldn't be required because an array of tiny 5 G cells should give adequate coverage. A tiny, vendor-neutral, multifunctional device like the Nodegrid Mini Services Router may be deployed with small cells to offer application hosting, out-of-band remote administration, and variable backhaul choices.