A circle is an eight-way symmetric shape. All
quadrants of a circle are the same. There are two octants in each quadrant of a
circle. If we know the value of any point, then we can easily calculate the
values of the remaining seven points by using the eight-way symmetry method. A
circle is a shape consist of a line called the** circumference. **All the
straight lines drawn from a particular point within the circle to the circumference
are always equal. A circle is a round shape that has no corner or sides.

**“A circle can be defined as a combination of
points that all points are at the same distance (radius) from the center point.”
**We can
express a circle by the following equation-

**(P – P _{c})^{2}
+ (Q – Q_{c})^{2 }= r^{2}_{}**

The above equation can be written as-

**(P) ^{2}
+ (Q)^{2 }= r^{2}_{ } {r
= radius}**

If we want to draw a circle, then we will
consider it by its origin point. Let us assume a point **P**_{1}**(R,
S) **then we can represent the other seven points as follows-

**P _{2}(R, -S)**

_{ }

**P _{3}(-R, -S)**

**P _{4}(-R, S)**

**P _{5}(S, R)**

**P _{6}(S, -R)**

**P _{7}(-S, -R)**

**P _{8}(-S, R)**

We can also represent eight points of the circle on the computer screen by using of put pixel function ().

Putpixel **(R, S,** **Color) **

Putpixel **(R, -S,** **Color)**

Putpixel **(-R, -S,** **Color)**

Putpixel **(-R, S,** **Color)**

Putpixel **(R, S,** **Color)**

Putpixel **(R, -S,** **Color)**

Putpixel **(-R, -S,** **Color)**

Putpixel **(-R, S,** **Color)**

**Example:** Let, we have taken a point **(4, 6) **of a
circle. We will calculate the remaining seven points by using of reflection
method as follows-

The seven points are – **(4, -6), (-4, -6), (-4,
6), (4, 6), (4, -6), (-4, -6), (-4, 6)**

There are two following standard methods to define a circle mathematically.

**A circle with a second-order polynomial equation.****A circle with trigonometric/ polar coordinates.**

**A circle with the second-order polynomial
equation**–

**y ^{2 }=r^{2}
– x^{2}**

Here, **x **= The coordinates of **x**

** ****y **= The coordinates of **y**

**r **= The radius of the circle

In this method, we will find the x coordinate (90° to 45°) by moving x from **0** to **r/√2,** and we will find each y coordinate by calculating **√r ^{2}-x^{2}** for each step.

It
is an ineffective method because for each point **x** coordinate and radius **r
**must be squaredand subtracted from each other.

**A circle with trigonometric/polar coordinate**–

**x = r cos θ**** **

**y = r sin θ**

Here, **x** = The coordinate of
x

** ****y** = The coordinate of y

**r = **The radius of the circle

**θ = **Current angle

In this method, the value of **θ** moves from 0 to **π/4. **We will calculate each value of **x **and **y.**

### Algorithms used in Circle Drawing

There are the following two algorithms used to draw a circle.

**Bresenham’s Circle drawing Algorithm****Mid-point Circle Drawing Algorithm**