Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

What is Circuit Switching


Modern communication networks have a significant middle that is called a circuit switching. It is one of the main principles, which support the existence of the majority of the global infrastructure of communications, forming the basis for the flawless automation and the exchange of information between the networks.

Historical Evolution

The history of circuit switching is closely associated with the beginning era of telephony, where operators were manually hooking up calls by using physical switchboards with automation and digital techniques gaining popularity over time while generating digital circuit-switched networks.

Mechanisms of Circuit Switching

Because of the nature of circuit switching is divided in to two principles upon based on when the dedicated communication path between two parties is established before any data transfer. The user taking action i.e. calling or transferring some data, the network creates a straight way, or circuit, between the destination and the source. Its reliability being at the highest level, circuit switching does not have congestion and low lag behind, and this is exactly why circuit switching is the best solution for applications such as voice and video calling where real-time transfer is needed.

Advantages of Circuit Switching

The other vital positive of circuit switching is that it is deterministic in its nature. Forming a circuit in a network leads to transmission routes being used solely for the communication parties; this safeguards a certain level of quality of service. This constancy is highly relevant in situations involving the need for reliable execution.

Applications of Circuit Switching

Circuit switching, which is applied in several domains besides the classic voice services, has been put to good use. It is the main channel for voice communications in public switched telephone networks (PSTNs) and is used also in crash diagnostics for Industrial Control Systems and Power Grids.

Limitations and Challenges

Besides its advantages, circuit switching has weak points such as lack of resource exploitation during the times low activity and newly coming challenges with adjusting flow of traffic because of its dynamism. Dedicated circuits, which are typically required for effective scaling, also result in a scalable resources prediction issues.

Integration with Packet Switching

In the recent past, the communication technology landscape has seen a transition from technologies that use circuit-based switching like the voice networks to the technologies that use the Internet Protocol (IP) networks. However, the circuit switching is still alive and kicking in the areas where its incomparable characteristics pose as a plus.SDN and NFV are examples of programmable networks which indicate the form of a future network in which borders are more converged in a networking layer. SDN separates the control plane from the data plane, enabling centralized network administration and distributed network resource consideration. NFV virtualizes the network functions, therefore, new types of services can be installed on demand, giving the possibility to scale and enhance flexibility. Through the use of this technology, circuit switching is able to react to changing demands, thus allotting the proper resource usage without compromising reliability.

Future Prospects

Programmable networks like SDN and NFV, among other options, are to be adopted as the future of circuit switching. These models offer the best of both word, it combines the flexibility of packet switching with the reliability of circuit switching, either paving way for the kind of communication system networks of the future.

Specialized Applications

Circuit switching is still the only option for certain specialized applications like emergency communications, defence systems, and critical infrastructure management mainly due to its strictness and determination. Increasingly, there is the necessity of real-time reaction and 100% reliability, which makes circuit-switched connection a priority.The predictable and reliable property of circuit switching is relied upon for emergency communications, defence systems, and critical infrastructure management to ensure availability of network connectivity during crises. In such fields, any variation from the pure conducting the given route may bring a disaster. Accordingly, circuit-switched connections continue to be invaluable, being the sole means of communication in case-sensitive situations, where each millisecond is important.

Legacy Systems and Migration Strategies

Also, there are those legacy systems that continue doing their operations using circuit switching. Transitioning network switches to packet-switched platforms can be complex and costly.The wiser operators handle this mysterious terrain by shrewdly balancing reliability with efficiency, so as to facilitate a smooth delivery of services when the transition period is upon them. The adoption by organizations of the hybrid approach enables risk management while stimulation of benefits from traditional and new technologies through circuit switching and packet switching. Therefore, maintaining the circuits running secures service provision and the partial migration to the new innovative technologies.

Hybrid Approaches

In this context, hybrid approaches which incorporate the strengths of both the circuit switching and packet switching provide a promising solution to connect old systems of networks with those of the present era. Seasoned operators can balance reliability with efficiency by skilfully, combining the two technologies. This way they can bring greater resource effectiveness and undisrupted service.

Continued Innovation

Innovation continues to dictate the way circuit switching technologies are designed, coming with the want for higher bandwidth, lower latency and reliability. Innovations including the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical circuit switching (OCS) can overcome the constraints of circuit-switched networks by allowing data transmission at the fastest rate, and in the greatest volume.

Enhanced Security Measures

Facing cybersecurity threats which are more and more complex, the circuit switching has to ensure first the application of new security mechanisms in order to protect the communications networks from dangers deriving from vulnerabilities and attacks. This encompasses the design and implementation of strong encryption methods, intrusion detection systems and segmentation of networks for the purpose of minimizing risks and assurance of data authenticity and secrecy.

Optimization for Scalability

In order to overcome the difficulties of scalability in the traditional circuit-switched networks, circuit-switching developments in the near future should target optimization methods that allow dynamic resource re-allocation, high bandwidth utilization and constant scalability. This kind of adaptation includes use of advanced routing algorithms, traffic engineering technique and network management schemes to accommodate different scenarios related to traffic and network behaviour.

Interoperability and Standards Compliance

While in an era increasingly interconnected, interoperability and standards compliance is the key in enabling smooth interfaces between different networks and systems. Circuit switch advancement must be focused on endowing interoperability standards, protocols, and frameworks with the ability to enable integration and communication in areas of diverse heterogeneous environments.

User-Centric Design

With the improvements of communication networks, we see more and more design principles of user-centricity which are based on usability, accessibility and user experience along with the use of modern technologies. The enhancements should be made the future developments of the circuit switching to the user interfaces, configuration processes, and the user satisfaction to the net effect to the wide spread adoption and acceptance for the technology.

Sustainability and Environmental Considerations

In addressing the global efforts of sustainable development and environmental conservation the future developments in circuit switching would focus on energy efficient design principles, renewable energy integration and sustainability lifecycle assessment. The circuit switching technology lowers energy bills and causes less environmental damage there by creating a much more sustainable and eco-friendly communication means.


  • Reliability: Circuit switching provides a high degree of reliability, as it establishes a dedicated communication path between parties and hence, redundancy is avoided, which maintains stability and lowers data loss.
  • Determinism: Circuit switching operation inheres in determinism, which is the key to a specific level of quality of service; this feature is particularly suitable for real-time communications like voice and video conversations.
  • Security: Additionally, circuit switching possesses security features that can eliminate unauthorized access due to the availability of dedicated circuits, therefore cutting down the risk of interception or tampering by unauthorized users.


  • Inefficiency: The circuit configuration is often inefficient as the dedicated circuits are sometimes unused during periods of low traffic leading to under used network capacity.
  • Scalability limitations: When it comes to scaling, circuit-switched networks have a difficulty that is because it is very costly and requires the addition of new circuits, which makes situations with rapidly growing or fluctuating traffic demand less favourable.
  • Lack of flexibility: Packet switching cannot ensure the flexibility of circuit switching; hence it will be less responsive to varying network dynamics and commend of diverse communication needs.


Lastly, circuit switching can be considered to be a key concept in telecommunications as it literally becomes the backbone of communication networks of reliable, deterministic and stable type. Despite the fact that technologies like the packet-switching have gotten advances, the circuit switching is irreplaceable in many fields where high performance and reliability are still the basic requirements. Being that the telecommunication landscape will be constantly changing, the one that will succeed in the long term is the one that will bring circuit switching and the new technologies together for smooth network connections for our next generations.