COA Tutorial

Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial Basic Terminologies Related to COA Digital Number System Computer Organization and Architecture Data Formats Fixed and Floating-Point Number IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers Control Unit Organization Data Path, ALU and Control Unit Micro-Operations CPU Registers Addressing Modes COA: Interrupt and its types Instruction Cycle: Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Pipelining and Pipeline Hazards Pipelining: Computer Organization and Architecture Machine Instructions 8085 instructions set 8085 Pin Configuration Addressing mode in 8085 microprocessor Advantages and Disadvantages of Flash Memory BCD to 7 Segment Decoder Biconnectivity in a Graph Bipartite Graph CarryLook Ahead Adder Control Signals in 8155 Microprocessor Convert a number from base 2 to base 6 Ethernet Frame Format Local Broadcast Address and loopback address Microprocessor classification Use Case Diagram for the online bank system 8086 Microprocessor Pin Configurations 8255 Microprocessor Operating Modes Flag Register of 8086 Microprocessor Data Transfer and Manipulation 8085 Arithmetic Instructions Assembly Language Register What is Cache Associativity? Auxiliary Memory in COA Associative Memory in Computer Architecture SCSI Bus in Computer Architecture What are Registers in Microprocessor What is Associative Memory 1 Persistent CSMA What is Floating-Point Representation in Computer Architecture? What is a Serial Port in a Computer? What is Cluster Computing What is Batch Processing in Computer Advantages of Client Server Architecture Spooling Meaning in Computer System Magnetic Core Memory Magnetic Ink Card Reader Decision Making Tools and Techniques Digital Electronics using Semiconductor Memory What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture? What is Hardwired Control Unit? Definition of Diodes in Electronics Advantages of FSK Web Server Architecture How the OS interfaces between the user, apps, hardware? Discuss the I/O Interface in Computer Architecture Difference between Internal Fragmentation and External Fragmentation MDR in Computer Architecture What is ESS? What is Gray code What is Parity Check? Firewall in E-Commerce Fragmentation in Computer Diskette Controller Handshaking in Computer Architecture Memory Interleaving

What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture?

In computer architecture, the internal organization of memory chips plays a critical role in determining how data is stored, accessed, and manipulated. Memory chips consist of numerous memory cells organized in a grid, with each cell capable of storing one bit of data. Understanding the internal organization of memory chips is essential for optimizing memory performance and efficiency.

Memory Cell Organization

A memory chip comprises multiple memory cells arranged in rows and columns. Each row of cells is connected to a common line called the word line, which is activated by an address encoder. The columns are connected by bit lines, which interface with the Sense/Write circuitry. During read operations, the Sense/Write circuitry detects the data stored in the selected cells and transmits it to the output data line. During write operations, data is received by the Sense/Write circuitry and stored in the selected cells.

Memory Chip Configurations:

A 16-word memory chip, or 16 x 8 organization, has 16 words, each with 8 bits. To minimize the number of pins needed, each Sense/Write circuit's data input and data output lines are linked to a single bidirectional data line. We require a size 4 address bus for 16 words. Two control lines, CS, alongside address and information lines, are also included. The line is meant to indicate the necessary read or write operations. A multi-chip storage system must select a specific chip via the CS (Chip Select) line.

What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture?

Imagine a memory unit with 1K (1024) memory cells but a little larger.

What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture?

Chips for 128 x 8 memory: It has 128 memory bits with a capacity of 8 bits if it is set up as a 128 x 8 memory chip. Thus, the bus used for addresses has a size of 7 bits, and the data bus has a size of 8 bits (2^7=128). Figure 3.6 illustrates how a 128 x 8 memory module is organized for storage.

1024 x 1 memory chips:

It only contains 1024 storage bits of size 1 bit if arranged as a 1024 x 1 memory chip. As a result, the bus for addresses has a size of 10 bits (2^10=1024), while the data bus has a size of 1 bit.

What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture?

The data of the memory's address bus identifies a particular memory location. The memory address is decoded using a decoder. Based on how the memory module is set up, there are two methods for deciphering a memory location.

Every memory word is arranged in a row in a single instance. In this instance, the address of the given location is decoded by utilizing the entire memory address bus. The picture below, depicts the storage organization of a 1024 x 1 memory chip. In the second scenario, multiple memory words are arranged in a row. In this instance, the address bus is split into two distinct categories. The row address is formed by one group, and another group forms the column's address. Examine the 1024 x 1 memory chip's memory layout. The row and column addresses of the cell array are created by splitting the necessary 10-bit address into two groups of five bits each.

What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture?

A row address chooses one of the 32 parallel-accessed rows of cells. Meanwhile, only one of these cells is connected to the outside information stream via the input-output multiplexing devices based on the column address. The image below illustrates how row addressing and column address decoders are arranged.

Internal two-chip Organization of 8x2 ROM chip

There is a linear internal structure. This device features two data results, three address inputs, and sixteen storage bits divided into eight 2-bit positions. One of the eight locations can be selected by decoding the three address bits, but only if the chip allows it to be turned on. The decoder is inactive, and no location is chosen if CE = 0. Data is permitted to flow to the resultant buffers because the tri-state buffers for the cells at that point are activated. The results are tri-stated because these buffers are activated, and data is sent from the device if CE and OE are set to 1.

The size of the encoder address needed in a linear structure grows unnecessarily large as the number of sites increases. It is possible to create the memory chip by utilizing several decoding dimensions. To understand this arrangement, look at the identical 8 x 2 ROM chip's two-dimensional layout in the picture.

It has a linear internal structure. This device features two data results, three address inputs, and sixteen storage bits divided into eight 2-bit positions. One of the eight possible locations can be selected by decoding all three address bits, but only if the chip allow is turned on. The decoder is inactive, and no location is chosen if CE = 0.

What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture?

Data is permitted to flow to the resultant buffers because the cells' tri-state buffer at that point is activated. The results are tri-stated because these buffers are activated, and data is sent from the device if CE and OE are set to 1.

The size of the encoder address needed in a linear structure grows unnecessarily large as the number of sites increases. It is possible to create the memory chip by utilizing several decode parameters.