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Different Styles of Displaying Text

There are a lot of instances in our daily life where we want to visually separate a part of text from other texts in the surrounding. The distinguished text can be given extra indentation to do the visual separation. This is known as displaying. LaTex provides environments to accomplish different styles.

Quotation

We all have seen some quotations. Quotations add extra weight to a text. Generally, we put texts in double quotes (“…”) to accentuate. However, when the distinguished text contains many lines, then double quotes style will not work. In this scenario, some extra indentation will work. The following example explains the same.

To achieve the above result, compile and run the following code.

We use \begin{quote} .. \end{quote} to achieve the extra indentation.

Poetry

In LaTex, we can also typeset poetry. Consider the following passage.

We can easily achieve the above passage by writing the following code.

To force a line break, \\ is used. To put some spaces between the lines, we can use \\[6pt]. This will put a vertical space of 6 points between lines. \\* might be used to avoid rhyming couplets to go on another page. Different stanzas can be separated by introducing blank lines.

Lists

We all know how to make bulleted-lists or numbered lists in a word processor (e.g., MS – Word). These lists can also be made in LaTex. Consider the following code.

Output:

The pair \being{itemize} and \end{itemize} are gives the environment for the generation of bulleted-list. Each entry in the environment is done by \item command.

LaTex also facilitates to generate a list within the list (nested lists). Look at the following code.

Output:

Notice, the second list comes with dashes, not bullets, which are achieved by the second \begin{itemize} … \end{itemize} pair. The above nesting of lists is also known as two levels of nesting. Different level of nesting is supported by LaTex.

Four levels of nesting

So far, we have only seen two levels of nesting. However, LaTex supports up to four levels of nesting. Observe the code and the output mentioned below.

Output:


Please not that all the labels used in the list are the default ones. LaTex facilitates us to even change that. Have a look.

Output:


Output:

Here, PostScript ZapfDingbats fonts are used for the selection of labels. To use ZapfDingbats fonts, we have to include package pifont by writing \usepackage{pifont} in the preamble.

Note: If we try to do more than four levels of nesting, the compiler will inform us about the same by an alert message “LaTex Error: Too deeply nested”. Though the code will compile and output will be generated but, the extra indentation we are getting for each nested list will not happen for the fifth nested list. The fifth list will come directly beneath the fourth one. The indentation for the fifth and the fourth list will be the same.  Try to do five levels of nesting for better understanding.

Numbered-List

Think about a procedure to make a dish or about an algorithm to solve a problem. In these cases, it becomes evident that order matters. We cannot jump directly to the last step of an algorithm and expect a fruitful result. Here, we can see order matters. Therefore, we should use a numbered list to typeset an algorithm. For example, consider the following.

Observe that we cannot jump directly to step 3. First, we need the output in pdf format. To make entries in order, we use the enumerate environment. Run the following code to obtain the above result.

Output:

The above-mentioned labels for different levels are the default ones. Therefore, for the first level, we have 1., 2., etc. For the second level, we have (a), (b), etc. For the third level, small roman numbers are present and block the alphabet for the last level, the fourth one. We can do the customization of labels for the different labels.

Customization in numbered-list

In order to achieve the output mentioned in the snapshot,

run the following code.

Step 1, 2, and 3 are produced by the optional argument mentioned in the square bracket immediately after \begin{enumerate}. To provide an indentation of 0.5cm \hspace{0.5cm} is used, which is not produced by default in the enumerate environment.

Option [i.] is used for displaying the labels i., ii., iii at the second level of enumeration.

Note I: In order to make Step 1, 2, 3 in bold, we can use the \bfseries command. Replace the line \begin{enumerate}[\hspace{0.5cm} Step 1.] with  \begin{enumerate}[\hspace{0.5cm} \bfseries Step 1.].

Note II:  We must include package enumerate to get the desired result.

Note III:  Extra care should be taken when we give options in the enumerate environment. Consider the following list.

Now, run the following code.

Since we have given the option as [\hspace{1cm}(A1)], the intuition will be that the labels will be named in the pattern A1, A2, A3. However, this is not true. The above-written code will give the following result.

Can you guess why? The option [A] tells that naming of labels should be done as A, B, …, H, J, …, Y, Z. These are the upper-case Roman alphabet. The option [1] ensures the labels should be named as 1, 2, …. These labels names are Arabic numerals. Option [a] will generate the lower-case Roman alphabet, and for the upper-case numeric values in Roman, we should use [I], and for the lower-case numeric values in Roman, we should be using [i].

To achieve the actual result, we should tweak our enumerate option as [\hspace{1cm}({A}1)]. We have to put curly braces around A.

Definitions and Descriptions

Let us discuss another type of list. Whenever we want to display a list like the following,

we must write the code written below.

This code will generate the following output.

Note: We have discussed different types of lists, its environment and its default settings. We can change the default values of typeset for any of these lists. For example, what we have done just above can be done with an enumerate also. Let us have a look at it.

To get the output as above, run the following code.

Notice, immediately after the \item command, we have used the square brackets to create our labels for the entries. You must be wondering what dollar sign ($) is doing in the code. It is changing the mode in TeX. We have three basic modes in TeX: two types of modes for math and one for ordinary text typesetting. To typeset the mathematical stuff inline, we must surround those stuff around the dollar sign ($). For example, $a^2 + b^2 = c^2$ gives the output as follows.

The first dollar sign starts the entry point of inline (ordinary) math mode and the second one serves as the exit point of the math mode. All the codes written above are in the text mode. This is also called normal or default mode. We will learn in detail about the math modes in the next coming sections. For now, let us see one more example of the dollar sign. If we write

We get the following output.

Did you get the same output by dry-running the code? The likely answer will be no. The question here is why we did not get a bullet label entry for the \item command. We have seen a lot of times that square brackets are used to provide options. Here also, LaTex interprets it as an option. The correct way to typeset the above will be

We will get the output as follows.

We see the subtle changes make a big impact on the result. Therefore, utmost precision should be taken to deal with the options to change the labels of the entries. Please note that LaTex also provides options to create custom lists.