C# Access Modifiers

C# provides various keywords to control or restrict accessibility or scope of the data. We can apply access modifiers to functions and variables. There are five access modifiers in C#:

  1. Private
  2. Protected
  3. Internal
  4. Protected internal
  5. Public
Let’s see each one of them in detail:
Access Modifier Description
public Public variable is accessible everywhere
Protected Protected is accessible only in derived class
Internal Internal is accessible only in containing assembly
Protected internal It is accessible in current assembly or derived classes.
Private It is only accessible within class
Public Access modifier: It makes data which is accessible publically. It doesn’t restricts the scope of data.

Example:
using System;
public class Student
{
            int id,age;
            string name,course;
            int batch;
            public Student(int id,int age,string name,string course,int batch)
            {
                        this.id=id;
                        this.age=age;
                        this.name=name;
                        this.course=course;
                        this.batch=batch;
            }
            public void display()
            {
                        Console.WriteLine(id+" "+age+" "+name+" "+course+" "+batch);
            }
}
public class StudentDetails
{
            public static void Main (string[] args)
            {
                        Student s1=new Student(101,23,"Varun Kumar","B. Tech.",2017);
                        s1.display();
            }
}
Output
101 23 Varun Kumar B. Tech. 2017
Protected Access Modifier: we can access protected modifier within the class or outside the class by inheritance.

Example:
using System;
public class Student
{
            int id,age;
            string name,course;
            int batch;
            public Student(int id,int age,string name,string course,int batch)
            {
                        this.id=id;
                        this.age=age;
                        this.name=name;
                        this.course=course;
                        this.batch=batch;
            }
            protected void display()
            {
                        Console.WriteLine(id+" "+age+" "+name+" "+course+" "+batch);
            }
}
public class StudentDetails
{
            public static void Main (string[] args)
            {
                        Student s1=new Student(101,23,"Varun Kumar","B. Tech.",2017);
                        s1.display();
            }
}
Output
Compilation error (line 26, col 6): 'Student.display()' is inaccessible due to its protection level
Protected Access modifier: Accessing data through inheritance
using System;
public class Animal
{
            int age=10;
            protected void eat()
            {
                        Console.WriteLine("at the age of "+age+" it should eat only normal food");
            }
}
public class Dog:Animal
{
            public static void Main(string[] args)
            {
                        Dog a=new Dog();
                        a.eat();
            }
}
Output
at the age of 10 it should eat only normal food
Private Access Modifier: Private can only be accessed within class only. it is the most restricted Access Modifier.

Example:
using System;
public class Student
{
            private int id,age;
            private string name,course;
            private int batch;
            public Student(int id,int age,string name,string course,int batch)
            {
                        this.id=id;
                        this.age=age;
                        this.name=name;
                        this.course=course;
                        this.batch=batch;
            }
            private void display()
            {
                        Console.WriteLine(id+" "+age+" "+name+" "+course+" "+batch);
            }
}
public class StudentDetails
{
            public static void Main (string[] args)
            {
                        Student s1=new Student(101,23,"Varun Kumar","B. Tech.",2017);
                        s1.display();
            }
}
Output
Compilation error (line 26, col 6): 'Student.display()' is inaccessible due to its protection level
Internal Access Modifier: Internal access modifier enables you to access the variable within the current assembly.

Example:
            using System;  
            namespace AccessSpecifiers  
            {  
                public class InternalTest  
                {  
                    internal string name = "Shantosh Kumar";  
                    internal void Msg(string msg)  
                    {  
                        Console.WriteLine("Hello " + msg);  
                    }  
}  
                public class Program  
                {  
                    public static void Main(string[] args)  
                    {  
                        InternalTest internalTest = new InternalTest();  
            // Accessing internal variable  
            Console.WriteLine("Hello " + internalTest.name);  
                        // Accessing internal function  
                        internalTest.Msg("Peter Decosta");  
                    } 
}  
            }
Protected Internal access Modifier: The protected internal variable can be accessed inside assembly as well as in the other assembly by inheritance. 
 
Example:
using System;  
using AccessSpecifiers1;
namespace AccessSpecifiers1 
{  
    public class InternalTest  
    {  
        protected internal string name = "Shantosh Kumar";  
        protected internal void Msg(string msg)  
        {  
            Console.WriteLine("Hello " + msg);  
        }  
    }  
}
namespace AccessSpecifier2
{
    public class Program:InternalTest  
    {  
        public static void Main(string[] args)  
        {  
            InternalTest internalTest = new InternalTest();  
            // Accessing protected internal variable  
            Console.WriteLine("Hello " + internalTest.name);  
            // Accessing protected internal function  
            internalTest.Msg("Peter Decosta");  
        }  
    }  
}
Output
Hello Shantosh Kumar
Hello Peter Decosta
 



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