IoT hardware includes a wide range of devices, such as routing devices, bridges, sensors, etc. These IoT devices support key tasks and functions such as system activation, security, action specifications, communication, and detection of specific objectives.
Hardware is an essential part of an IoT device. IoT gets the ability to sense real-world parameters like temperature, moisture, light, pressure, etc. With this intelligent hardware, we can perform actions like turning a device on and off.
Building Blocks of IoT Device Hardware:
There are four building blocks of IoT Device Hardware:
The "Things" in the IoT is the asset that you want to control, monitor, or measure.
In many IoT products, "Things" are completely combined with the smart device. For example, think of products such as smart home devices or an automatic vehicle. These products control and monitor themselves.
Sometimes, there are many other applications in which the product is a single device, and a separate product is connected to ensure intelligent functionality.
2. Data Acquisition Module
The data acquisition module focuses on acquiring the physical signals of the "Things" and converting them into the digital signals that can be handled by a computer.
It is a hardware part that includes all sensors that acquire real-world signals, such as motion, temperature, light, vibration, etc. The type and quantity of sensor depends on your application.
In the data acquisition module, the essential points that must consider are:
- How many sensors of any type do I need?
- What type of sensors do I need?
- How quick should I measure the real-world signal? (i.e., sample rate)
- How much skill do I need in my measurement? (i.e., sensor resolution)
3. Data Processing Module
The third building block of the IoT hardware device is the data processing module. It is the central unit that processes the data, and performs operations. For example, stores the data locally, local analysis, and performs other computing operations.
4. Communication Module
The last module of the IoT hardware is the communication module. These are the connections that allows communication between cloud platform and third-party systems.
This module can include communication ports such as USB, serial (232/485), CAN, or Modbus. It also includes radio technology for wireless communications such as Wi-Fi, LoRA, ZigBee, etc.
The communication module can be included in the same device as its other modules, or maybe in a separate device designed specifically for communications. This approach is often called "gateway architecture."
For example, if you have three sensors in a room that need to send data to the Cloud. These sensors can be connected to a single gateway in the same room. The gateway consolidates that data and sends it to the Cloud. Using this approach, you need only one communication module, not three.
The IoT Sensors are the most important part of hardware. These devices consist of a variety of modules, such as RF modules, energy modules, power management modules, and detection modules.