IP Addressing

IP Addressing is designed to allow hosts on a network to communicate with another host on a different network.

There are two types of IP address:

  1. IPv4

IPv4 addresses are 32-bits long. It allows maximum 4,294,967,296 (232) unique addresses.

  • IPv6

IPv6 addresses are 128-bits long. It allows maximum 3.4 x 1038  (2128) unique addresses.

IP Terminology

Before starting of IP address, there are several important terms that you should understand about the Internet Protocol, which are:


It contains only one digit, either 1 or 0.


It contains 8 bits, depending on whether parity is set or not.


It is made up of 8 bits, or we can say an ordinary 8-bit binary number.

Network Address

It is used in routing to send packets to a remote network.

Example – A network address can be of type:,, and

Broadcast Address

It is the address used by applications and hosts to send information to all nodes on a network.

Example: A broadcast address can be of type:

The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme

An IP address is a 32-bit binary number. For readability, this binary number can be divided into four 8-bit octets, and then each octet (or byte) can be converted to decimal number.

There are three methods to write IP addresses.

  • Dotted-decimal (
  • Binary (10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000)
  • Hexadecimal (AC.10.1E.38)

Private IP Addresses

The user who creates the IP addressing scheme also needs to create private IP addresses. These addresses can be used on a private network, and not routable through the Internet.

There are three classes in the Private IP Address:

     Class A

     Class B

     Class C

Unicast Address

  • One-to-One Communication:

 A process where data is delivered from a sender to a receiver is called unicast.

Example: Browsing a website.

ip addressing

Multicast Address

  • One-to-Many Communication

A process where data is delivered from a sender to multiple receivers is called multipoint communication or multicast.

Example: ARP request message.

One-to-Many Communication

Broadcast Address

  • One-to-all Communication

In the Broadcast address, data travels from a single source to all destinations.

Example: Broadcasting an audio or video message.

ip addressing 3

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