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Introduction and Features of Cryptography

What is Cryptography?

Secret coding has been a part of military activities for many years. In old times people know how to communicate privately. So we can say that private communication has been used since ancient times.

Cryptography is also the same as private communication. When we use cryptography for private communication, no third-party person can able to access the message. It is used in different parts of the world. Cryptography uses a method called encryption. That’s why no one except the authorized person, cannot access it. Cryptography makes our message safe and secure.

Cryptography is the part of studying how to communicate securely by which a user can send and receive a message with a safe and secure method.

Features of Cryptography

There is some feature of cryptography by which we can understand cryptography better. These features are described below.

1. Authentication

There are two parts to communication. One is the sender, and another is the receiver. For secure transmission, the message should be protected and safe. To secure a message, we have to encrypt the message, and both the sender and receiver must know the encryption and decryption methods. With the help of cryptography, we can make our message very secure with encryption and decryption mechanisms.

2. Data Privacy

Once the sender and receiver both know the encryption and decryption method, then it is essential to keep our data private. When there is an increase in data privacy issues, there is also an increase in the chance of unauthorized access. 

An unauthorized person can misuse our personal data if we don't keep our data private. With the help of cryptography, we can make our data confidential. Cryptography does not involve any third party between the channel of sender and receiver. So cryptography is best for making our data safe, secure and private.

3. Protection Against Alteration

After data is private and no one except the sender and receiver, cannot access our data, cryptography also provides protection against alteration. Third-party or unauthorized users can enter our communication channel, and alteration of data is also possible. But with the help of cryptography, there is no chance of alteration of data. Only the sender and receiver can change and alter the data. Except for the sender and receiver, no one can able to change our private data.

4. Non-Repudiated Transfer of Information

In cryptography, no one can be denied the truth. It means that the sender and receiver also cannot be denied the truth. Hence once the communication channel begins, then the sender and receiver deny their involvement of them in the communication process. It is possible only with the help of a cryptographic process.

5. Unobstructed Channel of Communication

It is already known that no one can involve in the process of cryptography. No one except the sender and receiver can able to involve in the communication channel. So this is said that the cryptographic communication channel is significantly obstructed. No one except an unauthorized person can enter the channel.

Cryptographic Algorithm

Cryptography is becoming an essential part of today's world. Now hackers are entering our communication channels, so it is necessary to preserve our privacy and block our visibility to any third-party users. So to overcome this problem, a cryptographic algorithm is developed. We can encrypt our data and privacy our data with the help of cipher code.

Types of Cryptography

Cryptography has been divided into three types. These are as follows.

  1. Symmetric-key cryptography.
  2. Asymmetric key cryptography.
  3. Hash function.

1. Symmetric Key Cryptography

It is an encryption technique by which there is only one key used for encryption and decryption. It is significantly easier to exchange these keys with the sender and receiver. It is also known as Data Encryption System (DES).

2. Asymmetric Key Cryptography

It is an encryption technique in which there is one key used for encryption and another key used for decryption. This is going to be very hard for the third-party user to access it. It is because it uses two keys for encryption and decryption. The exchange of these two keys is complicated.

3. Hash Function

The hash function is another type of cryptographic system. With the help of the hash function, we give a random input, and the cryptography gives us the fixed output value. With the help of the hash function, the cryptographic system becomes more complex to break.