DBMS Concepts

DBMS Tutorial Components of DBMS. Applications of DBMS The difference between file system and DBMS. Types of DBMS DBMS Architecture DBMS Schema Three Schema Architecture. DBMS Languages.


ER model: Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) Components of ER Model. DBMS Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation.

DBMS Relational Model

Codd’s rule of DBMS Relational DBMS concepts Relational Integrity Constraints DBMS keys Convert ER model into Relational model Difference between DBMS and RDBMS Relational Algebra DBMS Joins

DBMS Normalization

Functional Dependency Inference Rules Multivalued Dependency Normalization in DBMS: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF and 4NF

DBMS Transaction

What is Transaction? States of transaction ACID Properties in DBMS Concurrent execution and its problems DBMS schedule DBMS Serializability Conflict Serializability View Serializability Deadlock in DBMS Concurrency control Protocols


Difference between DFD and ERD


Advantages of DBMS Disadvantages of DBMS Data Models in DBMS Relational Algebra in DBMS Cardinality in DBMS Entity in DBMS Attributes in DBMS Data Independence in DBMS Primary Key in DBMS Foreign Key in DBMS Candidate Key in DBMS Super Key in DBMS Aggregation in DBMS Hashing in DBMS Generalization in DBMS Specialization in DBMS View in DBMS File Organization in DBMS What Is A Cloud Database What Is A Database Levels Of Locking In DBMS What is RDBMS Fragmentation in Distributed DBMS What is Advanced Database Management System Data Abstraction in DBMS Checkpoint In DBMS B Tree in DBMS BCNF in DBMS Advantages of Threaded Binary Tree in DBMS Advantages of Database Management System in DBMS Enforcing Integrity Constraints in DBMS B-Tree Insertion in DBMS B+ Tree in DBMS Advantages of B-Tree in DBMS Types of Data Abstraction in DBMS Levels of Abstraction in DBMS 3- Tier Architecture in DBMS Anomalies in Database Management System Atomicity in Database Management System Characteristics of DBMS DBMS Examples Difference between Relational and Non-Relational Databases Domain Constraints in DBMS Entity and Entity set in DBMS ER Diagram for Banking System in DBMS ER Diagram for Company Database in DBMS ER Diagram for School Management System in DBMS ER Diagram for Student Management System in DBMS ER Diagram for University Database in DBMS ER Diagram of Company Database in DBMS Er Diagram Symbols and Notations in DBMS How to draw ER-Diagram in DBMS Integrity Constraints in DBMS Red-Black Tree Deletion in DBMS Red-Black Tree Properties in DBMS Red-Black Tree Visualization in DBMS Redundancy in Database Management System Secondary Key in DBMS Structure of DBMS 2-Tier Architecture in DBMS Advantages and Disadvantages of Binary Search Tree Closure of Functional Dependency in DBMS Consistency in Database Management System Durability in Database Management System ER Diagram for Bank Management System in DBMS ER Diagram for College Management System in DBMS ER Diagram for Hotel Management System in DBMS ER Diagram for Online Shopping ER Diagram for Railway Reservation System ER Diagram for Student Management System in DBMS Isolation in DBMS Lossless Join and Dependency Preserving Decomposition in DBMS Non-Key Attributes in DBMS Data Security Requirements in DBMS DBMS functions and Components What is Homogeneous Database? DBMS Functions and Components Advantages and Disadvantages of Distributed Database Relational Database Schema in DBMS Relational Schema

Types of DBMS

Database Management System

A software that is programmed to enable the user to create and maintain a database. Using DBMS, we can implement create, read, update and delete operations on the information stored in a database.

There are various types of DBMS based on the connection of various database elements. The data models of the DBMS are as follows:

  • Entity-Relationship Data Model
  • Relational Data Model
  • Object-Oriented Data Model
  • Semi-Structured Data Model
  • Hierarchical Data Model
  • Network Data Model

Entity-Relationship Data Model

In an entity-relationship model, the data is organized into an entity and related to each other in the form of relationships. Relations tell the association composition between various entities.

Entities are anything that can be mapped with real-world objects; these entities have attributes of their own. These attributes are the properties of the entities.

Types Of DBMS

Relational Data Model

A relational data model constitutes two-dimensional tables. The data is stored in the form of one or more tables. Each table has rows and columns. A unique key identifies each row. Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to handle the Relational Database and its information. This is one of the most used data model types in the industry. Examples of relational data models include any model built using MySQL, Oracle Database etc.

The table below, the Employee table, is an example of a Relational Database.

Employee ID

Employee Name



Jane Doe1

Department 1


Jane Doe2

Department 2


Jane Doe3

Department 3

In the above Employee Table, the Employee ID, Employee Name and Department are the Column name or the attributes of the Employee table where the Employee ID can be used to access each employee entry uniquely.

Object-Oriented Database

In this data model, we arrange the data into objects and classes. This model provides all the features of an object-oriented programming language. It involves multiple objects stored together. It is one of the most efficient data models. It offers all the functionalities that are available in object-oriented programming. We can perform inheritance, encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction on the data stored in this data model along with all the existing features provided by the DBMS. It ensures better concurrency controls and transactions to the DBA. It is relatively easier to maintain and requires a comparatively low code to operate. An example of this model is Object DB software.

Types Of DBMS

Semi-Structured Data Model

This model has a flexible structure; the rest of the data models are rigid when it comes to data entry. This data model allows the user to enter the individual data types of the same type, but they are of different attributes. There is no clear distinction between the schema and data in this data model. It is no defined structure and is defined by the amount of data entered, so there is no wastage of space when using this data model. But this model is not well organized. The structure of the model can be modified, to suit the purpose of the organization or the user.

Types Of DBMS

Hierarchical Data Model

This model is similar to a tree in the data structure. A single parent node can have one or more than one child node, which is the case in the hierarchical data model. In this model, the data is organized as the elements where there are one to many relationships among various elements. The side with a single element is higher than the multiple elements. Thus, forming a structure the same as the tree.

  • This model begins with a root node.
  • Each child node is connected to its parent node.
  • It is a top-down approach to the database model.
  • In the industry, this model is used to design and implement the organisation's mainframe platforms.

An example of this model is IMS.

This model is hardly used for personal databases and is usually used in large organizations where different operations are performed at different levels.

E.g., It can be implemented in a college where the college itself will be the root node. To begin with, a single college will have multiple departments, each department will have multiple teachers, and each teacher will be teaching multiple students. There are multiple one to many relations in the given data model. Data from each level can be easily stored in this manner.

Types Of DBMS

Network Data Model

The network data model is somewhat similar to the hierarchical model. The only key difference between these is the relation between the two elements. In a network relationship model, the elements may also have one to one and many to many relationships too. In this model, the data is arranged and connected in a similar way in which the vertices and edges of the graphs are connected. Multiple inheritances are possible in this data model as a child can have multiple parents, and multiple parents can also have multiple children.

For example, A teacher can teach multiple subjects, but at the same time, that same subject can be taught by multiple teachers. And students may opt for multiple subjects, and those subjects can be taught to students by multiple teachers. Thus, forming a graph.

Types Of DBMS