COA Tutorial

Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial Basic Terminologies Related to COA Digital Number System Computer Organization and Architecture Data Formats Fixed and Floating-Point Number IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers Control Unit Organization Data Path, ALU and Control Unit Micro-Operations CPU Registers Addressing Modes COA: Interrupt and its types Instruction Cycle: Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Pipelining and Pipeline Hazards Pipelining: Computer Organization and Architecture Machine Instructions 8085 instructions set 8085 Pin Configuration Addressing mode in 8085 microprocessor Advantages and Disadvantages of Flash Memory BCD to 7 Segment Decoder Biconnectivity in a Graph Bipartite Graph CarryLook Ahead Adder Control Signals in 8155 Microprocessor Convert a number from base 2 to base 6 Ethernet Frame Format Local Broadcast Address and loopback address Microprocessor classification Use Case Diagram for the online bank system 8086 Microprocessor Pin Configurations 8255 Microprocessor Operating Modes Flag Register of 8086 Microprocessor Data Transfer and Manipulation 8085 Arithmetic Instructions Assembly Language Register What is Cache Associativity? Auxiliary Memory in COA Associative Memory in Computer Architecture SCSI Bus in Computer Architecture What are Registers in Microprocessor What is Associative Memory 1 Persistent CSMA What is Floating-Point Representation in Computer Architecture? What is a Serial Port in a Computer? What is Cluster Computing What is Batch Processing in Computer Advantages of Client Server Architecture Spooling Meaning in Computer System Magnetic Core Memory Magnetic Ink Card Reader Decision Making Tools and Techniques Digital Electronics using Semiconductor Memory What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture? What is Hardwired Control Unit? Definition of Diodes in Electronics Advantages of FSK Web Server Architecture How the OS interfaces between the user, apps, hardware? Discuss the I/O Interface in Computer Architecture Difference between Internal Fragmentation and External Fragmentation MDR in Computer Architecture

Assembly Language Register

Assembly Language Register

Assembly language was introduced during the late 1940s in the second generation. It is a low-level language that helps in communication between the user and the computer. It is a programming language that helps in translating high-level language into machine language. Every computer has a different machine language so a different assembly language is also required for translation. There are assemblers that also translate or convert assembly programming code into machine language.

Assembly language helps in solving the arithmetic and logical operations in a CPU. It becomes easy for both the programmer and the computer to understand and solve the operations. There are many advantages of assembly language such as it reduces time as well as space complexity, is flexible, and many more.

Assembly language register can be defined in simple terms as when an operation is performed, it needs to be converted into a machine language and after the conversion is done with the help of an assembler, it requires a place to be stored and it is referred to as a register or assembly language register.  

The register is similar to memory but the only difference is that in the register we store the operations directly in a processor and also that the values in registers do not require an address for the storage. Registers are simply collections of flip-flops that help in increasing the storage capacity. 

Assembly Language Register

The registers that are found in an assembly language are of two main types and they are called general purpose registers and floating registers.  These registers are present inside the CPU of a computer.

  • General Purpose Registers are types of registers that act as extra storage or registers that are used when any data or value is required for the storage purpose in the CPU of a computer. These types of registers are also referred to as quick memory where sending, receiving, storing and, providing instructions of data takes place within a second or two. It is mainly used where a wide variety of tasks are being performed. It is used for solving general tasks on computers. The main application of general-purpose registers is that it is used to store temporary data in a microprocessor.
  • Floating Registers are the types of registers that are used for the execution process. In these types of register, numbers act as varying digits after the decimal point or we can refer to it as the arithmetic operation that represents the numbers into binary which is not fixed. The advantages of floating-point registers are that they are used where values are represented between the integers, they can implement various operations such as multiplication, subtraction, division, square root, and many more, it is of higher speed and has design complexity. Also, that floating registers are usually very expensive and are difficult to implement.

Types of Registers in Assembly Language

There are different types of registers in an assembly language and some of them are mentioned below;

1. General Register

2. Control Register

3. Segment Register

1. General Purpose Register

  • Data Register

Data registers are the types of general-purpose registers that store data values in the computer memory or the register.  It mainly holds 32 bits of data registers and helps in solving various arithmetical, and logical operations. This method makes operations fast and easy. And also, it can be used for destination and source operands. These types of registers are mostly used in microcomputers where it acts as a temporary storage of data.

  • Base Register

Base registers are the types of registers that hold both the address and the addressing value of the base storage location where data is being stored continuously. Base registers are mainly used during indexed addressing.

  • Accumulator Register

Accumulator registers are the type of registers present in the CPU of a computer that helps in storing logical and arithmetical data in a multi-step calculation process. It acts as a temporary storage of data. Accumulators are now being replaced by general-purpose registers as they are considered to be more flexible.

  • Stack Pointer Register

Stack pointer registers are registers of 16 bits. They are used for keeping a track of the stack. The stack pointer indicates the exact location of the last element being stored in the stack. Stacks are being implemented using the ‘push’ and ‘pop’ operations. Stack pointers are banked so that only one of them is visible at a particular time. Stack usually follows the LIFO principles, which means Last-In-First-Out where the last element inserted in the stack will be the first element to be removed or deleted. The main objective of stack pointer registers is that it ensures that the data is being stored at the given locations and this is done with the help of the increment and decrement method. Stack pointers are referred to as special-purpose registers.

  •  Index Register- these are the types of registers that are mainly of low-level language present in the CPU of a computer. Because of its low-level memory, programmers do not find it to be easily accessible. In simple words, it can be defined as a processor register that is being used for the modification of operands during the runtime of a program for an array operation. In many processor index registers takes place by the use of source index (SI) and destination index (DI). Index registers are basically used for memory allocation. It is also used for storing information about the loops. In most cases, it has been seen that index registers are used for holding iteration numbers in the loop.  Index registers hold the relative positions of an array element. This register proves to be useful in arrays and strings for the stepping process.

2. Control Registers

Control registers are the types of processor registers that control the overall behaviour of the CPU. Control registers are usually 32 bits. The combination of both the flag register and instruction pointer register forms a control register. There are various types of control registers and they are CR0 modifies the basic operations, CR1 is used for future purpose, CR2 is used during the page fault linear data address, CR3, CR4, CR5, CR6, and CR7. CR0 are used only to read 0, CR2 and CR3 are used for the general purpose, and CR5 and CR6 are used in interrupt status and mask registers.

3. Segment Register

Segment registers are types of registers that define the particular area of data, stack, or be it any other elements. There are three types of registers and they are code segments containing all those elements which are meant to be executed, data segment are segments where data are being stored with further information about its work area, stack segment contains the data or we can say that it stores data and the return address of the subroutines. Stack segments are used for addressing stack elements in the memory.

There are many types of segments used for storage purposes. Segment registers are used for the storage of the starting address in order to get the exact location of the data. This register can easily modify the memory address which is accessed by 16 bits at a particular time.

Advantages of Assembly Language

Some of the advantages of assembly languages are listed below:

1. It helps in data storage and representation both in the memory and the external devices.

2. Its execution time is faster.

3. It is very much compatible.

4. It is easy to use as compared to machine language.

5. It can easily detect errors and the modification process is easy.

6. It consists of some special applications.

Why do We Need Assembly Language

Assembly languages are considered to consume less memory storage and less execution time. Through this language, we can easily perform high technical tasks. It is considered to be very powerful as it helps in implementations. It requires minimum space for storage as the programs are written in smaller forms. Also, it is faster than high-level languages. Assembly language gives complete control over the systems and the resources. A programmer working with the assembly language should have a complete piece of knowledge about the processor and the memory. Assembly language proves to be helpful in understanding algorithms.


Assembly language registers are considered to be very important for understanding computer architecture, its language and programming. Though there are present differences in machine language and so does it requires different assemblers for both its storage process and for various implementations. These registers prove to be helpful in keeping the records in the computer for future purposes. Using registers proves to be beneficial as because of it a person can use languages that are appropriate for a particular situation.