COA Tutorial

Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial Basic Terminologies Related to COA Digital Number System Computer Organization and Architecture Data Formats Fixed and Floating-Point Number IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers Control Unit Organization Data Path, ALU and Control Unit Micro-Operations CPU Registers Addressing Modes COA: Interrupt and its types Instruction Cycle: Computer Organization and Architecture Instruction Pipelining and Pipeline Hazards Pipelining: Computer Organization and Architecture Machine Instructions 8085 instructions set 8085 Pin Configuration Addressing mode in 8085 microprocessor Advantages and Disadvantages of Flash Memory BCD to 7 Segment Decoder Biconnectivity in a Graph Bipartite Graph CarryLook Ahead Adder Control Signals in 8155 Microprocessor Convert a number from base 2 to base 6 Ethernet Frame Format Local Broadcast Address and loopback address Microprocessor classification Use Case Diagram for the online bank system 8086 Microprocessor Pin Configurations 8255 Microprocessor Operating Modes Flag Register of 8086 Microprocessor Data Transfer and Manipulation 8085 Arithmetic Instructions Assembly Language Register What is Cache Associativity? Auxiliary Memory in COA Associative Memory in Computer Architecture SCSI Bus in Computer Architecture What are Registers in Microprocessor What is Associative Memory 1 Persistent CSMA What is Floating-Point Representation in Computer Architecture? What is a Serial Port in a Computer? What is Cluster Computing What is Batch Processing in Computer Advantages of Client Server Architecture Spooling Meaning in Computer System Magnetic Core Memory Magnetic Ink Card Reader Decision Making Tools and Techniques Digital Electronics using Semiconductor Memory What is Internal Chip Organization in Computer Architecture? What is Hardwired Control Unit? Definition of Diodes in Electronics Advantages of FSK Web Server Architecture How the OS interfaces between the user, apps, hardware? Discuss the I/O Interface in Computer Architecture Difference between Internal Fragmentation and External Fragmentation MDR in Computer Architecture

Microprocessor classification

Introduction: Microprocessor is known as the computer processor. The IC or integrated Circuit makes the microprocessor. that is the brain of the computer machine. The microprocessor is known as the Processor or CPU (critical Processing Unit).

all of the processors are brought about in a single tiny chip. The microprocessor decodes the statistics and tactics the facts. The processor's input has come from the reminiscence, which methods the enter to supply the preferred output. The microprocessor performs 3 tasks at some point of the processing of the data.

Microprocessors are specifically three types, and their names are CISC, RISC and EPIC.

CISC Processor: The whole call of the CISC processor is complex guidance Set computer. with the aid of the name, it is regarded that the training set is complicated. complex instruction method a single training can keep many low-level commands. Loading statistics from memory or storing records inside the reminiscence is a basic example of complicated instructions.

This CISC processor is used to limit the quantity of instructions in step with application.

This processor needs a small size of RAM (Random get entry to memory). We use a few registers if a couple of operations require simplest a single preparation. The compiler works too little to assemble the facts from excessive-level to low-degree language or system language because the length of the CISC processor code is concise.

instance of CISC processor is Intel 386, Intel 486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium seasoned, IBM 370, IBM 268, VAX eleven/780 and many others.

Architecture of CISC Processor: Inside the CISC processor, maximum storage area is wanted for the more considerable applications. The higher the memory price to clear up this, the quantity of instructions in keeping with software can be decreased by way of embedding the quantity of operations in a single practise.because of this can lower memory price.

Characteristics of CISC Processor: The CISC processor has the following capabilities-

  1. The CISC processor presents many types of addressing modes.
  2. The CISC processor consists of extra coaching units or complicated training units.
  3. In this processor, the decoding of any preparation is likewise very complicated.
  4. Here the dimensions of any training are greater than the only-word length.
  5. Within the CISC education, we used greater statistics kind codecs.
  6. In this processor, the wide variety of commands is significantly less, so the memory does the most work.
  7. Right here numerous cycles are used for the execute a small guidance.
  8. Inside the CISC processor, the coaching set desires a couple of addressing modes.

 RISC Processor: The whole name of the RISC processor is the decreased instruction Set pc. by way of the name, it's miles recognised that the instruction is pretty easy and completed fast. The RISC processor's instructions get finished by simplest one clock cycle. This preparation also used some addressing modes. The RISC processor is used multiple registers, so the interaction with reminiscence is drastically much less.

 Example of CISC processor is IBM RS6000, DEC Alpha 21064, DEC Alpha 21164, DEC Alpha 210642, DEC Alpha 211066, DEC Alpha 211066, DEC Alpha 21068, DEC Alpha 21164, electricity pc 601, strength pc 604, power laptop 615, power computer 620, HP 7100LC and so on.


Architecture of RISC Processor: The RISC processor is a microprocessor. Its architecture of it's miles a distinctly-optimized set of commands. this is used in transportable devices like the apple iPod for its excessive power performance.

Microprocessor classification

Characteristics of RISC Processor: The RISC processor has the following functions-

  1. The RISC processor consists simple training set.
  2. This processor supports many styles of statistics-type codecs.
  3. Inside the RISC processor, we used less variety of facts types.
  4. The number one cause is straightforward addressing modes.
  5. Here the dimensions of any instruction are beneath the only-phrase size.
  6. It also provides a hard and fast period of the coaching.
  7. This supports the multiple numbers of the sign up to use in any context.
  8. The RISC processor's commands get entire to execute by way of simplest one clock cycle.
  9. To access the memory area, the commands "LOAD" and "shop" are used inside the RISC processor.
  10. The RISC processor includes a tremendous variety of registers.
  11. It is used for pipelining.

EPIC Processor: The overall name of the EPIC processor is Explicitly Parallel education Computing. by the name, it is recognized that the guidance works parallelly by way of the use of a compiler. This guidance works very complexly. a few clock frequencies procedure the complex instruction of the EPIC processor.

EPIC processor can encode the training.

Furthermore, this processor can encode 128-bit bundles of guidance. every bundle consists of 3 complete commands in the set of 128-bit bundles. each of the three commands encoded in 41 bits is likewise a template 5-bit training. The five-bit template practise of the EPIC processor consists of the kind of the facts and also knows which preparation can be processed parallel.

The EPIC processors include Intel structure-sixty four or IA-64 HP-UX, 64-bit windows, undertaking Monterey, Novell Modesto, and many others. The Intel architecture-sixty four is the first 64-bit microarchitecture based totally at the EPIC processor.

What are the advantage and disadvantage of CISC and RISC?

Advantage of CISC processor:

  1. In the CISC processor, microprogramming is as clean as meeting-degree language implementation.
  2. This processor uses a complicated command. but the order is readable.
  3. the use of reminiscence is low in the CISC processor.
  4. In this processor, there may be appreciably less quantity of time consumption.
  5. The number of instructions for acting any operation in a CISC processor is plenty much less.

Advantage of RISC processor:

  1. Inside the RISC processor, the instructions are sincere.
  2. The practise is easy to apprehend.
  3. The education of the RISC processor is straightforward to decode.
  4. In this processor, the instructions are complete by most effective one clock cycle.
  5. The CPU of the RISC processor can without difficulty cope with multiple instructions at a time.
  6. In the CISC processor, the design may be very complicated. but the RISC processor's layout is extra straightforward than the CISC processor.
  7. The RISC processor can easily layout.
  8. The performance of the RISC processor is extra excellent than the CISC processor.

Disadvantage of CISC processor:

  1. The CISC processors are very extra substantial. due to the fact this processor incorporates a large wide variety of transistors.
  2. This processor can take more than one cycles in step with line of code.
  3. Inside the CISC processor, the performance is lowering.
  4. This processor has a decrease clock pace.
  5. The CISC processor may be very complex for the usage of pipelining.
  6. Within the CISC processor, the layout could be very complicated. However, within the RISC processor, the layout is simple. So, it's miles one of the essential risks of CISC processors.
  7. The CISC processor is high-priced in comparison to the RISC processor.

Disadvantage of RISC processor:

  1. The RISC processor requires extensive cache memory.
  2. In this processor, overall performance relies upon on the code being executed.
  3. The RISC processor needs excessive-pace memory systems to feed unique instructions.

What are the characteristics of CISC processor structure?

  1. Microprogram control Unit.
  2. Cache and fundamental memory.
  3. Control Unit.
  4. Instructions and statistics course.

What are the characteristics of RISC processor structure?

  1. Hardwired control Unit.
  2. Facts route.
  3. Education Cache.
  4. Records Cache.
  5. Essential memory.
  6. Simplest Load and store commands have to get admission to the memory.
  7. Notably fewer range addressing modes.
  8. RISC includes a much less complicated pipelining architecture compared to CISC.

What are the difference between CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) and RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processor?

SL. No.CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) ProcessorRISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processor
1The CISC processor specializes in the hardware.  The RISC processor makes a speciality of the software program.
2Here transistors are used for the storing of complicated commands.Right here transistors are used for extra registers.
3The scale of practise is changed in the CISC processor.The size of the practise is fixed in the RISC processor.
4The circuit design is complicated on this processor.The circuit design is easy on this processor.
5The CISC processor is more highly-priced.The RISC processor is much less steeply-priced.
6The CISC processor may be very complicated for using pipelining.The RISC processor is used for the pipelining.
7This processor is needed a huge quantity of registers.This processor is needed much less quantity of registers.
8It's far carried out in a couple of clock cycle.It is carried out in one clock cycle.