Angular 8 Tutorial

Angular 8 Introduction History and versions of Angular 8 Architecture of Angular 8 How to install Angular 8 and set-up it. Creating our first Angular 8 app Angular 8 app loading

Difference between Angular And react

Angular vs react

Angular 8 Advantages Disadvantage

Advantage and Disadvantage of Angular 8

Angular 8 file structure

Angular 8 file structure

Angular 8 components

Components of Angular 8

Angular 8 CLI Commands

All CLI commands of Angular

Angular 8 with Bootstrap

How to install bootstrap for Angular 8 Libraries of Angular 8

Angular 8 Routing

Routing in Angular 8

Angular 8 directives

Angular 8 Directives Angular 8 ngIf directive Angular 8 ngFor directive Angular 8 ngSwitch directive Angular 8 ngClass directive Angular 8 ngStyle directive

Angular 8 pipes

Angular 8 Pipes

Angular 8 databinding

Angular 8 Data binding Angular 8 Event binding Angular 8 Property binding Two-way data binding in Angular 8

String Interpolation In Angular 8

Angular 8 String interpolation

Angular 8 forms

Angular 8 Forms Data flow of forms in Angular 8 Creating forms in Angular 8 Testing and validation of forms in Angular 8

Error fixing in Angular 8

Error fixing in Angular 8

Dependency injection and services in Angular 8

Dependency injection services in Angular 8

Angular 8 Animations

Angular 8 Animations

Dynamic components in Angular 8

Dynamic components in Angular 8

Angular 8 Module

Angular 8 Module Deploying an angular 8 app

Introduction of unit testing in angular 8

Unit testing in angular 8

Observables in angular 8

Observables in angular 8

Angular 8 universal

Angular 8 universal

Angular 8 Changes and new features

New features and changes in Angular 8

Conclusion

Angular 8 Conclusion

Angular 8 Observables

Observables provide support for passing messages between publisher and subscription in our application. The observables can deliver the multiple values of any type like literal, messages, depending on the content.

It is an object that defines the callback method to handle the three types of notification that an observable can send. These are the following.

  • Next: Required. The handler for each delivered value called zero or more type after execution start.
  • Error: Optional. The handler is used for error warning. An error stops the execution of the observable instance.
  • Complete: Optional.The execution for the execution complete notification. Delayed value can continue delivering to the next handler after the execution complete.
Angular 8 Observables

An observable deliver multiple values of any type-literals, messages, or events, depending on the context. The API for receiving values is the same whether the values are offered on the context. Because setup and teardown logic are handled by the observables, And our application code only needs to subscribing to consume values, and when it done, or unsubscribing.

Basic usage and terms

As a publisher, we create an observer instance that defines a subscriber function. It is the function that is executed when a consumer calls the subscribe() method.

To execute the observable we have created and begun receiving notifications, we call the subscribe() method, passing an observer. This is a JavaScript object which defines the handlers for the notifications we receive. The subscribe () call returns a subscription object  than the unsubscribe () method, what we call to stop receiving notifications.

Basic usage and terms

Example:

Observe geolocation updates
 // Create an Observable which will start listening to gelolocation updates
 // when a consumer subscribed.
 const locations = new Observable((observer) => {
   // Get the next callbacks. It will be passed in when 
 const {next, error} = observer;
   let watchId; 
 if ('geolocation' in navigator) {
     watchId = navigator.geolocation.watchPosition(next, error);
   } else {
     error('Geolocation not available');
   }
 return {unsubscribe() { navigator.geolocation.clearWatch(watchId); }};
 }); 
 const locationsSubscription = locations.subscribe({
 next(position) {console.log('Current Position: ', position); },
 error(msg) { console.log('Error Getting Location: ', msg); }
 });
 setTimeout(() => { locationsSubscription.unsubscribe(); }, 10000); 

Creating observable

Use the observable constructor to create any observable stream of any type of method. The constructor makes an its argument the subscriber function to run when the observable's subscribe( ) method executes. A subscriber function receiver an observer object, and can publish values to the observer’s next() method.

Creating observable

For example:

Create observable with constructor

// The function runs when subscribe() is called in the function.
 function sequenceSubscriber(observer) {
  //It synchronously deliver 1, 2, and 3, then complete 
   observer.next(1);
   observer.next(2);
   observer.next(3);
   observer.complete();
  return {unsubscribe() {}}; 
 }
 const sequence = new Observable(sequenceSubscriber);
 sequence.subscribe({
   next(num) { console.log(num); },
   complete() { console.log('Finished sequence'); }
 }); 
 // Logs:
 // 1..
 // 2..
 // 3..
 // Finished sequence

To take this example a little further, we can create an observable which publishes events.

Example:

Create with custom fromEvent function

function fromEvent(target, eventName) {
   return new Observable((observer) => {
     const handler = (e) => observer.next(e);
     // Add the event handler to the target
     target.addEventListener(eventName, handler);
 return () => {
       // Detach the event handler from the target
       target.removeEventListener(eventName, handler); 
     };
   });
 } 

Now we can use function to create an observable that publishes keydown events:

Use custom fromEvent function

const ESC_KEY = 27;
 const nameInput = document.getElementById('name') as HTMLInputElement;
 const subscription = fromEvent(nameInput, 'keydown')
   .subscribe((e: KeyboardEvent) => {
     if (e.keyCode === ESC_KEY){ 
   nameInput.value = '';
   } 
   }); 

Multicasting

An Observable creates a new, independent execution for the subscribed observer. When an observer subscribes, the observable wire up an event handler and delivers the value to the observer. When a second observer subscribes, the observables then it wires up a new event handler and delivers values to the second observer in a separate execution.

Sometimes, In place of starting an independent execution for every subscriber,  we want each subscription to get the same values-even if values have already begun to emit.

Let's see an example that counts from 1 to 3, with a one-second delay after each number emitted.

Create a delayed sequence

function sequenceSubscriber(observer) {
  const seq = [1, 2, 3];
   let timeoutId;
   function doSequence(arr, idx) {
     timeoutId = setTimeout(() => {
       observer.next(arr[idx]);
       if (idx === arr.length - 1) { 
         observer.complete();
       } else {
         doSequence(arr, ++idx);
       }
     }, 1000);
   }
 doSequence(seq, 0); 
   return {unsubscribe() {
     clearTimeout(timeoutId);
   }};
 }
 //It Create a new Observable that will deliver the above sequence 
 const sequence = new Observable(sequenceSubscriber);
 sequence.subscribe({
   next(num) { console.log(num); },
   complete() { console.log('Finished sequence'); }
 });
 // Logs:
 // (at 1 second): 1 
 // (at 2 seconds): 2
 // (at 3 seconds): 3
 // (at 3 seconds): Finished sequence 

Notice that if we subscribe twice, there will be two separate streams, each emitting values every second. It looks something like this:

Two subsciptions

// Subscribe starts the clock, and emit after per second 
 sequence.subscribe({
 next(num) { console.log('1st subscribe: ' + num); },
 complete() { console.log('1st sequence finished.'); }
 });
 // After 1/2 second, subscribe again.
 setTimeout(() => {
 sequence.subscribe({ 
 next(num) { console.log('2nd subscribe: '+ num); },
 complete() { console.log('2nd sequence finished.'); }
   });
 }, 700)
 // Log:
 // (In 1 second): 1st subscribe: 1
 // (In 1.5 seconds): 2nd subscribe: 1 
 // (In 2 seconds): 1st subscribe: 2
 // (In 2.5 seconds): 2nd subscribe: 2
 // (In 3 seconds): 1st subscribe: 3
 // (In 3 seconds): 1st sequence finished
 // (In 3.5 seconds): 2nd subscribe: 3
 // (In 3.5 seconds): 2nd sequence finished 

Changing the observable to be multicasting  look something like this:

Create a multicast Subscriber

function multicastSequenceSubscriber(){
   const seq = [1, 2, 3];
 const observers = [];
   let timeoutId;
  (runs when subscribe()
   // function is invoked)
   return (observer) => {
     observers.push(observer); 
     if (observers.length === 1) {
       timeoutId = doSequence({
         next(val) {
           observers.forEach(obs => obs.next(val));
         },
         complete() {
           observers.slice(0).forEach(obs => obs.complete()); 
         }
       }, seq, 0);
     }
  return {
       unsubscribe() {
         observers.splice(observers.indexOf(observer), 1);
         if (observers.length === 0) { 
           clearTimeout(timeoutId);
         }
       }
     };
   };
 } 
 function doSequence(observer, arr, idx) {
   return setTimeout(() => {
     observer.next(arr[idx]);
     if (idx === arr.length - 1) {
       observer.complete();
     } else {
       doSequence(observer, arr, ++idx); 
     }
   }, 1000);
 }
 const multicastSequence = new Observable(multicastSequenceSubscriber());
 // Subscribe starts the clock, and begins to emit after 1 second
 multicastSequence.subscribe({ 
   next(num) { console.log('1st subscribe: ' + num); },
   complete() { console.log('1st sequence finished.'); }
 });
 // After 1 1/2 seconds, subscribe again (should "miss" the first value).
 setTimeout(() => {
   multicastSequence.subscribe({
     next(num) { console.log('2nd subscribe: ' + num); },
     complete() { console.log('2nd sequence finished.'); } 
   });
 }, 1500);
 // Logs:
 // (at 1 second): 1st subscribe: 1
 // (at 2 seconds): 1st subscribe: 2
 // (at 2 seconds): 2nd subscribe: 2
 // (at 3 seconds): 1st subscribe: 3
 // (at 3 seconds): 1st sequence finished 
 // (at 3 seconds): 2nd subscribe: 3
 // (at 3 seconds): 2nd sequence finished 

Error handling

Because observables produce values asynchronously, try/catch will not effectively catch errors. Instead, we handle errors by specifying an error callback on the observer. An observable can produce values (calling the next callback), or it can complete, calling either the complete or error also causes the observable to clean up subscriptions and stop producing values.

myObservable.subscribe({
   next(num) { console.log('Next num: ' + num)},
   error(err) { console.log('Received an errror: ' + err)}
 }); 



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