What is Data Communication and Computer Network?
Data Communication is the process of exchanging digital data between two or more computers that act as source and receiver through wireless media or transmission media such as a wire cable. This Data communication process goes through a telecommunication network known as Computer Network that allows computers to exchange data.
Classification of Computer Networks
Computer Networks get classified on the following factors:
- Geographical Span - Geographically, a network is spanned in the following categories: LAN, PAN, MAN, and WAN.
- LAN (Local Area Network): This network is a connection of two or more personal computers spanned in a small area such as building, office through a communication medium such as twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, etc.
- PAN (Personal Area Network): This network is spanned for personal use of computing devices (mobile phones, laptops, media player, and play stations), arranged within a person, typically within a range of 10 meters such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, USB, etc., and covers an area of 30 feet.
- MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): This network is inter-connection of different LANs, covers a larger geographic area, uses between banks, and colleges in a city and airline reservation through a telephone exchange line.
- WAN (Wide Area Network): This network spans over a large geographical area through a telephonic line, fiber optic cable or satellite links used in the sectors of Business, Government, and Education. The Internet is a broad network in the world.
- Inter-connectivity: Components of a computer network may be connected either physically or logically or in both manners as defined below:
- Mesh Topology in which every single device connected to every other device on the network.
- Bus Topology in which all devices connected to a single medium by lacking geographical connection.
- Linear Structure in which each device connected to its left and right peers only.
- Star Topology in which all devices connected with a single device in the form of a star.
- Hybrid Topology in which two or more topologies combined.
- Administration: As an administrator’s point of view, a network can be private (a single autonomous system that can’t be accessible outside its physical or logical domain) or public (can be accessed publically).
- Architecture: Computer Network Architecture is the complete framework of physically and logically designed software, hardware, protocols, and media of the transmission of data that defines how computers organized and how tasks allocated to them.
There are various types in which computer networks discriminate as below:
- Peer-to-Peer Network: This type of network model forms a small environment of up to 10 computers by linking them together with equal privilege and responsibilities for data processing without any dedicated server.
- Client/Server Network: This is a client-server based network model that enables clients to access the resources like audios, videos from the Server. Clients are all the computers or end users that communicate with each other through a server. The Server is the central computer or central controller that makes a response to the clients ‘request and secures, manages the computer network.
- Hybrid Network: This network model is the combined architecture of the network models defined above.
Components of Computer Network
NIC: Network Interface Card (NIC) is a physical network interface defined as the hardware component that enables a computer to connect to a network. It is in used for both wired and wireless connections. It is also known as network interface controller card, expansion card, network card, computer circuit board, Network Adapter Card (NAC).
Hub: A computer network hub is a basic type of wired network device by which multiple connected computers can communicate via broadcast communication.
Switch: Switch is a computer hardware component that is used to connect multiple devices on a computer network. Its features are more advanced than hub features.
Router: Router is a networking device used to connect a LAN with an internet connection that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Modem: A modem ( MOdulator /DEModulator ) is a hardware device used to transmit digital data over transmission media like a telephone line, a cable or a satellite etc.
Cables and Connectors: Cable is a transmission media used for transmitting digital signals. Optical-Fibre Cable, Co-axial cable, and Twisted Pair Cable are the three types of cable used for transmission of digital signals.
The transmission mode is the way of data transmission from one device to another device. It is of three types:
- Simplex Mode: In simplex mode, data flows in a single direction making communication unidirectional means a device can only send the data but cannot receive it or vice-versa.This transmission mode used in business sectors like sales that do not require any corresponding reply and also used in a simplex channel like a radio station in which signals are transmitted to the listeners not allowing them to transfer back. Keyboard and monitor are examples of devices used in simplex transmission.
- Half-Duplex Mode: In half-duplex mode, data flows in both the directions but not at the same time, and its path can reverse. During data transmission, the entire bandwidth can utilize in a single direction at the same time. A Walkies-talkie is the best example of Half-Duplex Mode in which one person speaks and another listens such that they both can’t communicate simultaneously.
- Full-Duplex Mode: In Full-Duplex mode, data flows in both the directions making the communication bi-directional like a telephone network in which two persons communicate with each other through a telephonic line such that both of them can speak and listen simultaneously. It is the fastest mode of communication between devices as it doubles the utilization of the capacity of the communication channel.
Security and Privacy
These are the following aspects of Network Security to achieve secure communication as follows:
- Privacy: Privacy concerns provide confidentiality to both the sender and the receiver for secure connection having data transmission strategy (i.e., encryption and decryption methods) such that transmitted messages sent by the sender (first party) will be sent only to the intended receiver (second party) preventing from the snoopers (third party).
- Message Integrity: Message integrity ensures authenticity to the sender and receiver for the transmitted data sent over communication such that the content of transmitted messages will not be tampered with or altered during transmission, either maliciously or network trouble, in transit.
- End-point Authentication: It ensures receiver the authentic identity of the sender, i.e., the messages not sent by any deceiver.
- Non-Repudiation: Non-Repudiation is a legal concept defined as an assurance that someone can’t deny the validity of something he/she given. In network security, it assures receiver with the proof of the origin of data and data integrity. By this assurance, a sender can’t deny for the messages he or she sent to the receiver.
Computer Network Tutorial
- Introduction of Computer Network
- Types of Computer Network
- Network Topology
- Computer Networking Architecture
- Transmission Modes (Data Flow)
- Basic Networking Devices
- Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Data Link Layer
- Process to Process Delivery
- User Datagram Protocol
- Transmission Control Protocol
- Stream Control Transmission Protocol
- Session Layer and Presentation Layer
- Differences between IPv4 and IPv6
- Difference between Active and Passive FTP
- Difference between Transport and Network Layer
- Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology
- Difference between BOOTP and RARP
- Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols
- Difference between NFC and RFID
- Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network
- Differences Between MSS and MTU
- Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port
- Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks
- Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals
- Difference Between Hub and Repeater
- Difference between Repeater and Switch
- Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge
- Difference between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
- Difference between GUI Testing and Usability Testing
- Difference between Sanity Testing and Smoke Testing
- Differences between Distance Vector and Link State Routing
- Difference Between Intranet and VPN
- Difference between VLAN and VSAN
- What is Computer Network
- What is Framing in a Computer Network
- What is Bus Topology
- What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks
- What is a Proxy Server
- What is APPN
- What is ICMP Protocol
- What is Point-to-Point Protocol
- What is Port Address in Networking
- What is the HDLC Protocol
- What is VRRP Protocol
- What is Wired and Wireless Networking
- What is a Hardware Firewall
- What is PAN
- What is Unit Testing? Why developers should learn Unit Testing
- What is Data Encapsulation and Data Decapsulation in Networking
- What is Macro Virus and how they affect Computer Systems
- What is VLAN
- What is VSAN
- What is WSN Network
- What is Cidr in AWS
- What are Elementary Data Link Layer Protocols
- What is An Ad Hoc Network
- What is The Ieee 802
- What is Tunneling in Computer Networks
- What is Twisted Pair Cable
- What is a Computer Network
- Classes of Routing Protocols
- Classification of Routing Algorithms
- Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks
- Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable
- Fiber Optics and its Types
- Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable
- Define Framing in Computer Network
- Disadvantages of Computer Network
- Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network
- Ring Topology in Computer Network
- Star Topology in Computer Networks
- 4G Mobile Communication Technology
- Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN
- Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN
- Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN
- Application Layer in OSI Model
- Cyclic Redundancy Check Example
- Data link layer in OSI model
- Hamming Code Example
- Network Layer in OSI Model
- Session Layer in OSI Model
- Transport Layer in OSI Model
- Two Port Network in Computer Networks
- Uses of Computer Networks
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology
- Subnetting in Computer Network
- Subnetting Questions and Answers
- Access Control in Networking
- Basic Characteristics of Computer Network
- Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks
- Computer Network viva Questions
- MIME Protocol in Computer Networks
- Modes of Communication in Computer Networks
- Network Attack in Computer Network
- Port Address in Networking
- Simplest Protocol in Computer Network
- Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network
- Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks
- TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks
- Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks
- Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks
- Transport Protocol in Computer Networks
- Types of CSMA in Computer Networks
- Bit Stuffing and Bit De-Stuffing
- Firewall Methodologies
- Go Back ARQ in Computer Network
- Zone Based Firewall
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethernet
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Topology
- Advantages and Disadvantages of the Star Topology
- Checksum in Networking
- Delays in Computer Network
- Functions of Data Link Layer in the OSI Model
- Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol
- Guided Transmission Media in Computer Networks
- IGRP Routing Protocol in Computer Networks
- Modes Of Bluetooth Connection
- Protocols of a Network Layer
- Single Program Multiple Data
- Data Transfer Instructions with Examples
- Levels of Cache Memory
- Logical Addressing in Computer Network
- Multiple Access Protocols in Computer Network
- Advantages of Unguided Media
- Back Side Bus in Computer Network
- Router and Brouter in Computer Network
- 2 Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network
- Data Link Layer Services Provided to the Network Layer
- Functions Of the Transport Layer
- Computer Network Security Requirements
- Transmission Impairments in Computer Networks
- Types of Modems
- Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks
- Brust Errors In Computer Network
- Digital Signal in Computer Network
- Network Security Requirements
- Router in Computer Network
- Check Sum Error Detection
- Checksum Example
- Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks
- Linear Bus Topology
- Magnetic Media in Computer Network
- Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Routers
- Advantages of Installing a Network
- Application Layer in Computer Networks
- Application Layer Protocols in Computer Networks
- Application of Data Communication Network
- Central Device in Star Topology
- Multiple Access Techniques in Wireless Communication
- Parallel Port in Computer
- Resource Sharing in Computer Networks
- Static Routing Algorithms in Computer Network
- TDMA Technology