Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Model

OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Misc

Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Computer Network Tutorial

What is Data Communication and Computer Network?

Data Communication is the process of exchanging digital data between two or more computers that act as source and receiver through wireless media or transmission media such as a wire cable. This Data communication process goes through a telecommunication network known as Computer Network that allows computers to exchange data.

Classification of Computer Networks

Computer Networks get classified on the following factors:

  • Geographical Span - Geographically, a network is spanned in the following categories: LAN, PAN, MAN, and WAN.
  1. LAN (Local Area Network): This network is a connection of two or more personal computers spanned in a small area such as building, office through a communication medium such as twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, etc.
  2. PAN (Personal Area Network): This network is spanned for personal use of computing devices (mobile phones, laptops, media player, and play stations), arranged within a person, typically within a range of 10 meters such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, USB, etc., and covers an area of 30 feet.
  3. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): This network is inter-connection of different LANs, covers a larger geographic area, uses between banks, and colleges in a city and airline reservation through a telephone exchange line.
  4. WAN (Wide Area Network): This network spans over a large geographical area through a telephonic line, fiber optic cable or satellite links used in the sectors of Business, Government, and Education. The Internet is a broad network in the world.
  • Inter-connectivity: Components of a computer network may be connected either physically or logically or in both manners as defined below:
  1. Mesh Topology in which every single device connected to every other device on the network.
  2. Bus Topology in which all devices connected to a single medium by lacking geographical connection.
  3. Linear Structure in which each device connected to its left and right peers only.
  4. Star Topology in which all devices connected with a single device in the form of a star.
  5. Hybrid Topology in which two or more topologies combined.
  • Administration: As an administrator’s point of view, a network can be private (a single autonomous system that can’t be accessible outside its physical or logical domain) or public (can be accessed publically).
  • Architecture: Computer Network Architecture is the complete framework of physically and logically designed software, hardware, protocols, and media of the transmission of data that defines how computers organized and how tasks allocated to them.

There are various types in which computer networks discriminate as below:

  1. Peer-to-Peer Network: This type of network model forms a small environment of up to 10 computers by linking them together with equal privilege and responsibilities for data processing without any dedicated server.
  2. Client/Server Network: This is a client-server based network model that enables clients to access the resources like audios, videos from the Server. Clients are all the computers or end users that communicate with each other through a server. The Server is the central computer or central controller that makes a response to the clients ‘request and secures, manages the computer network.
  3. Hybrid Network: This network model is the combined architecture of the network models defined above.

Components of Computer Network

NIC: Network Interface Card (NIC) is a physical network interface defined as the hardware component that enables a computer to connect to a network. It is in used for both wired and wireless connections. It is also known as network interface controller card, expansion card, network card, computer circuit board, Network Adapter Card (NAC).

Hub: A computer network hub is a basic type of wired network device by which multiple connected computers can communicate via broadcast communication.

Switch: Switch is a computer hardware component that is used to connect multiple devices on a computer network. Its features are more advanced than hub features.
Router: Router is a networking device used to connect a LAN with an internet connection that forwards data packets between computer networks.

Modem: A modem ( MOdulator /DEModulator ) is a hardware device used to transmit digital data over transmission media like a telephone line, a cable or a satellite etc.

Cables and Connectors: Cable is a transmission media used for transmitting digital signals. Optical-Fibre Cable, Co-axial cable, and Twisted Pair Cable are the three types of cable used for transmission of digital signals.

Transmission Modes

The transmission mode is the way of data transmission from one device to another device. It is of three types:

  • Simplex Mode: In simplex mode, data flows in a single direction making communication unidirectional means a device can only send the data but cannot receive it or vice-versa.This transmission mode used in business sectors like sales that do not require any corresponding reply and also used in a simplex channel like a radio station in which signals are transmitted to the listeners not allowing them to transfer back. Keyboard and monitor are examples of devices used in simplex transmission.
  • Half-Duplex Mode: In half-duplex mode, data flows in both the directions but not at the same time, and its path can reverse. During data transmission, the entire bandwidth can utilize in a single direction at the same time. A Walkies-talkie is the best example of Half-Duplex Mode in which one person speaks and another listens such that they both can’t communicate simultaneously.
  • Full-Duplex Mode: In Full-Duplex mode, data flows in both the directions making the communication bi-directional like a telephone network in which two persons communicate with each other through a telephonic line such that both of them can speak and listen simultaneously. It is the fastest mode of communication between devices as it doubles the utilization of the capacity of the communication channel.

Security and Privacy

These are the following aspects of Network Security to achieve secure communication as follows:

  • Privacy: Privacy concerns provide confidentiality to both the sender and the receiver for secure connection having data transmission strategy (i.e., encryption and decryption methods) such that transmitted messages sent by the sender (first party) will be sent only to the intended receiver (second party) preventing from the snoopers (third party).
  • Message Integrity: Message integrity ensures authenticity to the sender and receiver for the transmitted data sent over communication such that the content of transmitted messages will not be tampered with or altered during transmission, either maliciously or network trouble, in transit.
  • End-point Authentication: It ensures receiver the authentic identity of the sender, i.e., the messages not sent by any deceiver.
  • Non-Repudiation: Non-Repudiation is a legal concept defined as an assurance that someone can’t deny the validity of something he/she given. In network security, it assures receiver with the proof of the origin of data and data integrity. By this assurance, a sender can’t deny for the messages he or she sent to the receiver.

Computer Network Index

Model

Physical Layer

Data Link Layer

Network Layer

Transport Layer

Application Layer

Misc