Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Session Layer and Presentation Layer Session Layer The fifth layer is the Session layer in the OSI model, which controls connections between many computers. It manages, establishes, and terminates the session connection between two communication hosts. The figure...

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

Stream Control Transmission Protocol: SCTP stands for Stream Control Transmission Protocol. SCTP was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It is a reliable message-oriented protocol of the transport layer. It provides the best features of the TCP...

Process-to-Process Delivery

Process-to-Process Delivery: A transport-layer protocol’s first task is to perform process-to-process delivery. A process is an entity of the application layer which uses the services of the transport layer. Two processes can be communicated between the...

Unicast Routing Protocol

Unicast Routing Protocol: Unicast is a point to point communication arrangement that only occurs between the sender and receiver. Routing Information Protocol RIP is an open standard protocol that can work with any company’s router. RIP is a classful routing...

Address Mapping

Address Mapping: Internet is made of a combination of physical networks connected together by internetworking devices such as routers. A logical address is an internetwork address. A physical address is a local address. It is usually implemented in hardware (but not...

Aloha

Aloha Norman Abramson and his colleagues were developed aloha at the University of Hawaii in the 1970s. ALOHA is a Multiple Access Protocol which is used for random access in the network. Aloha was designed for the wireless local area network (WLAN), which is also...

Network Layer: Logical Address

Network Layer – Logical Address The IP address is a 32 bit long, and it provides us a maximum of 232 addresses. These addresses are known as IPv4 addresses. The IP address is a 128 bit long, and it provides us a maximum of 2128 addresses. These addresses are...

Multiple Access Control

Multiple Access Control: The data link layer is separated into two sub-layers. The upper sub-layer is responsible for flow control and error control that is called the logical link control layer. The lower sub-layer is responsible for multiple access resolution that...

Error Correction and Error Detection

Error Correction and Error Detection Error correction and error detection techniques are work on the data-link layer. The data link layer ensures the frames are sent from the sender to the receiver with accuracy. Error correction is more difficult than error...

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