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Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

Fiber Optics and its Types

Fiber Optics is a type of technology that is used to transfer data through the cable with the speed of light. The metal wire is preferred for the transmission of data because, through the metals, the data can be transferred without damaging the wire. Also, electromagnetic waves can not affect optical fibers. The optical fiber uses total internal reflection technology for the transmission of data. The fibers of optics cable are designed in such a way that the propagation of light is possible by which the data can travel for long distances very easily. For the longer distance of data transmission the single mode fiber is used, and the multimode fiber is used for the shorter distance. For better protection of fiber optics cable, the outer cladding is required.

Types of Optical Fiber

On the basis of the reflective index, mode of propagation of light, and material used, the fiber optics cable is classified as follows;

Based on the reflective index, the classification of optical cable are as follows:

  1. Step-index fiber: In this optics cable, the cable is surrounded by the cladding, and the reflective index of step-index fiber is very high.
  2. Graded index fiber: In the graded-index thread, the refractive index is going to decrease as the length of the cable increases.

Based on the material used, the classification of optical cable is as follows:

  1. Plastic optical fibers: In a plastic optical fiber, the core material used to make the cable is polymethyl methacrylate.
  2. Glass fibers: In Glass fiber, the core material used to make the cable is extremely fine glass fiber.

Based on the propagation mode, the optical cable classification is as follows:

  1. Single-mode fiber: For long-distance data transmission, single-mode fiber is being used.
  2. Multimode fibers: For shorter-distance data transmission, the multimode fiber is being used.

Based on the mode of propagation and the refractive index, the classification of optical cable is as follows:

  1. Step index single mode fibers.
  2. Graded index single-mode fibers.
  3. Step index multimode fibers.
  4. Graded index multimode fibers.

How Does an Optical Fiber Work?

The optical fiber works on the principle of total internal reflection. Light rays can transmit a massive amount of data, but there is a problem here – the light rays travel in straight lines. So, if we have a long straight wire without any bends, harnessing this advantage will be very tedious. Instead, the optical cables are designed to bend all the light rays inwards (using TIR). Golden rays travel continuously, bouncing off the visual fiber walls and transmitting end-to-end data. Although weak signals degrade over progressing distances, depending on the purity of the material used, the loss is much less than using metal cables. A Fiber Optic Relay System consists of the following components:

  • The Transmitter: It produces the light signals and encodes them to fit to transmit.
  • The Optical Fiber: The medium for transmitting the light pulse (signal).
  • The Optical Receiver: It receives the transmitted light pulse (signal) and decodes them to be fit to use.
  • The Optical Regenerator: Necessary for long-distance data transmission.

Advantages of Optical Fiber Cable

There are some advantages of optical fiber cable. These advantages are as follows:

  1. It is economical and cost-effective.
  2. It is thin and non-flammable.
  3. It consumes less power.
  4. It has less signal degradation.
  5. It is more flexible and lightweight.

Disadvantages of Optical Fiber Cable

There are also some disadvantages of optical fiber cable. These disadvantages are as follows:

  1. Cables are more delicate in nature.
  2. Highly vulnerable in nature.
  3. Special devices are needed for installation.
  4. It isn't very easy to merge the cable.


The optical fibers are made of plastic or glass. The diameter of optical fiber is like the diameter of human hair. Its length is many miles long. The light is traveled from one end to another end, and in this manner, the signal is transmitted through the wire. The optical cable is a very good conductor in many metallic applications. The main advantage of fiber optics cable is its bandwidth speed because the data traveled through the optics cable has a very high wavelength; that's why a large amount of data can be transferred through it.