Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

What is Computer Network?

 A computer network is a collection of interconnected devices, such as computers, servers, routers, and switches, that are connected together to share resources and exchange data. These devices use a variety of communication protocols, such as TCP/IP, to transmit and receive information. Computer networks can be classified into different types, such as local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and the internet, depending on their size and geographical scope. For many purposes it can be used as share of files, accessing data on remote and communication also.

A computer network is a setup of collection up of interconnected devices that are connected to one another devices to share resources and exchange data items. These devices are as computers, servers, routers, switches, and other networking equipment of network. The main advantages of a computer networking are to allow devices to make communication and share data, information with each other. This can be done through wired or wireless connections of network. The most common type of wired connections are Ethernet cables, while wireless connections use technologies such as Wi-Fi.

Each computer network has its own set of protocols and standards that govern how data is transmitted and received. The most properly using up of protocol for data transfer over networks is as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Computer networks can also be designed for different purposes. Some common examples include as:

  • File sharing
  • Share resource
  • Remote access
  • Communication
  • Connectivity
  • Internet Cloud computing
  • Backup and recovery
  • Distributed computing

Overall, computer networks play a crucial role in connecting devices and allowing them to share resources and communicate with one another, which in turn enables greater efficiency, productivity, and collaboration.

Types of Computer Network

Computer networks can be divided into many types based on the network size and scope. Some examples include are as:

  1. Local Area Networks (LANs): This is used as connecting devices within a small area of globe area, such as a single building or campus. A LAN (Local Area Network) is a group of network computers and also other devices that are connected together in a small geographical area, such as a home, office, or building. These devices used to communicate with network and share resources, such as printers, scanner and files items, with each other. LANs are typically connected through a wired or wireless network infrastructure and use network protocols such as Ethernet to transmit data.
  2. Wide Area Networks (WANs): It connects devices across larger geographic areas, such as a city or a country. A WAN (Wide Area Network) is a type of network that connects computers and other devices over a wide geographical area, such as across multiple cities, states, or even countries. These can be of networks which are connected through most of the technologies, including leased lines, satellite links, and the internet. WANs are typically used by organizations with multiple locations, such as businesses or government agencies, to connect their LANs (Local Area Networks) together and share resources and information. WANs are generally more complex to set up and maintain than LANs, and often require specialized equipment and services from network providers.
  3. Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs): This can connect the devices within a metropolitan area. A MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a type of network that connects the network computers and other devices within a metropolitan large area, such as a city, state etc. It is major than a LAN (Local Area Network) but minimizable than a WAN (Wide Area Network). A MAN typically spans several square kilometers and covers multiple buildings or organizations. A MAN can be implementing as using up of various technologies as fiber-optic cables, wireless or a combination of both. The main purpose of a MAN is to provide high-speed data transfer and communication services to a large area such as a city. Examples of a MAN include a citywide wireless network, cable TV network, and telephone company networks.
  4. Internet: The largest and most widely used computer network, connecting devices all over the world. The internet is a network up of goal of interconnected computers networks and servers that communicate with each other as using standardized internet protocols as such as TCP/IP. It allows individuals and organizations to connect and share information and resources, such as websites, email, and online services, across the world. The internet is built on an infrastructure of connected networks, including LANs (Local Area Networks), WANs (Wide Area Networks), and MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks), as well as other specialized networks such as those used by governments and large corporations. The internet is not owned or controlled by any single entity, but is instead maintained and governed by a diverse group of organizations and individuals. The internet is constantly expanding, with new technologies and devices being developed to connect more people and devices to the network.

Purposes of Computer Network

Computer networks are used for a wide range of purposes, including as:

  • File sharing: Allows users to share and access files, documents, and other data stored on a central server or network-attached storage device.
  • Resource sharing: Allows users to share and access printers, scanners, and other peripherals that are connected to the network.
  • Remote access: Allows users to connect to the network remotely, such as from a home office or while traveling, and access network resources as if they were on-site.
  • Communication: Make users to communicate with one another using email, instant messaging, and other forms of digital communication.
  • Internet connectivity: Allows users to access the internet and the vast resources it has to offer, such as websites, online services and applications.
  • Cloud computing: Allows users to access and share data and applications over the internet using cloud-based services.
  • Remote Control and Monitoring: Allows the user to monitor and control devices connected to the network from a remote location.
  • Backup and recovery: Allow users to create copies of important data and store them on a separate device or location for safekeeping and recovery in case of data loss.
  • Distributed computing: Allows multiple computers to work together to perform complex tasks, such as scientific simulations and data analysis.

Overall, the use of computer network allows for greater efficiency, productivity and accessibility for businesses, organizations and individuals.

Network Devices

A network device is a hardware device that is connected to a network and is used to transmit and receive data. There are many different types of network devices, including:

  • Router: A router is a device that connects multiple networks together and routes traffic between them. It determines the best path for data to travel based on the destination of the data and the available networks.
  • Switch: A switch is a device that connects devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other. It receives data packets and forwards them to the destination device based on the destination address.
  • Hub: A hub is a device that connects multiple devices on a network and broadcasts data packets to all connected devices. It does not have the ability to route or filter traffic like a switch or router.
  • Bridge: A bridge is a device that connects two separate networks together and forwards data between them. It is used to allow devices on one network to communicate with devices on another network.
  • Gateway: A gateway is a device that connects a network to another network or the Internet. It acts as an entry and exit point for data and is responsible for routing data between the networks.
  • Firewall: A firewall is a device or software that is used to protect a network from unauthorized access or attacks. It monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows or blocks traffic based on predetermined rules.

Network Topology

In computer networking, a topology refers to the layout or arrangement of devices on a network and how they communicate with each other. There are several common network topologies, including:

  • Bus topology: Devices are connected to a single central cable, called a bus. This is a simple and cheap topology, but it can be inefficient if there are many devices on the network.
  • Star topology: Devices are connected to a central hub or switch. This topology is more expensive than a bus topology, but it is more efficient and can support more devices.
  • Ring topology: Devices are connected in a circular fashion, with each device connected to two other devices. Data travels around the ring in a specific direction.
  • Mesh topology: Every device is connected to every other device on the network. This provides multiple paths for data to travel, making it a highly reliable topology, but it can be expensive to implement.
  • Tree topology: A combination of a bus and a star topology, with a central hub connected to multiple devices, which are connected to other devices in a hierarchical fashion.
  • Hybrid topology:  A combination of two or more different topologies.

Which topology is best for a particular network depends on the specific needs and requirements of the network,