Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

MIME Protocol in Computer Networks

MIME which is also known as Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension was first introduced in 1991 by Bell Communications, which expands the capabilities of email.

MIME originated from the Andrew Messaging System, a part of the Andrew Project being developed at Carnegie Mellon University(CMU), and which acts as a cross-platform alternative for the Andrew-specific data format.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is defined as a protocol that is used in computer networks to extend the capabilities of email messages beyond plain text. MIME allows email messages to include multimedia content such as images, audio, video, and formatted text. MIME works by adding special headers to email messages that indicate the type of content that is included in the message. For example, if an email message includes an image, the MIME header will indicate that the content type is "image/jpeg" or "image/png".

MIME also allows for the encoding of non-ASCII characters, such as those used in languages other than English, into a format that can be transmitted over the network. This encoding is known as "quoted-printable" and allows non-ASCII characters to be sent as ASCII text.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) protocol is a standard protocol used for formatting and transmitting messages on the internet. While MIME was originally developed for email communication, it has since been used in many other areas, such as web applications and APIs.

There are two main types of MIME and they are; text/plain and application/octet-stream.

Text /Plain do not contain any binary data and is human-readable whereas an application/ octet-stream are the default value. It holds files which are of unknown types.

Benefits/ Advantages

Some benefits of using the MIME protocol in computer applications include:

1. Support for multimedia content: MIME protocol supports the transmission of multimedia content such as images, audio, and video files, allowing for rich media experiences in applications.

2. Compatibility with different types of content: MIME protocol allows for the transmission of a wide range of content types, including text, HTML, and binary data.

3. Security: MIME protocol supports the use of encryption and digital signatures, helping to ensure the security and privacy of transmitted messages.

4. Flexibility: MIME protocol is highly flexible and can be adapted to suit the needs of different applications and systems.

Applications of MIME protocol

1. Email communication: MIME protocol is widely used for email communication, allowing for the transmission of messages with attachments and multimedia content.

2. Web applications: MIME protocol is used in web applications to transmit data between web servers and clients. It is also used to format data in APIs, allowing for easy integration with other applications.

3. File transfer: MIME protocol is used for file transfer, allowing for the transmission of files between different systems.

4. Streaming media: MIME protocol is used for streaming media, allowing for the transmission of audio and video content in realtime over the internet.

5. It allows users to send multimedia content such as images, audio, and video within email messages.

6. MIME is used in computer networks to enhance the functionality of email messages. It allows email clients to recognize and display various type of content within an email message, including text, images, audio, and video.

Key Feature of MIME Header

Some of the key features of the MIME header include:

1. Content type: The MIME header specifies the type of data being transmitted, such as text, image, audio, or video. This information is used by the receiving system to determine how to interpret and display the content.

2. Character set: The MIME header also specifies the character set used in the content, such as UTF-8 or ISO-8859-1. This is important for displaying text correctly, especially when dealing with non-ASCII characters.

3. Encoding: The MIME header can specify the encoding used to compress or encode the content, such as gzip, deflate, or base64. This is useful for reducing the size of the data being transmitted, or for ensuring that binary data can be transmitted safely over email or other channels.

4. Boundary: When transmitting multiple pieces of data in a single message, the MIME header can specify a boundary string to separate each section. This allows the receiving system to parse the message correctly and extract each piece of data separately.

Need of MIME

Here are some reasons why MIME is needed:

1. Support for non-ASCII characters: Before MIME, email messages were limited to ASCII characters only, which made it difficult to send messages in other languages. MIME allows email messages to contain non-ASCII characters, making it easier to communicate in different languages.

2. Support for multimedia content: MIME allows email messages to contain multimedia content, including images, audio, and video. This enables users to send and receive rich media content, which is essential for businesses and individuals who need to share complex information.

3. Standardization: MIME provides a standard way of identifying the type of content in an email message or HTTP request or response. This enables different email clients and web browsers to understand the type of content being transmitted and handle it appropriately.

4. Flexibility: MIME allows different content types to be mixed in a single message, making it possible to send a combination of text, images, and other multimedia content in a single email message.

MIME is essential because it extends the format of email messages to support non-ASCII characters and multimedia content, standardizes the identification of content types, and provides flexibility in sending different content types in a single message.

Working of MIME

The basic working of MIME involves adding special headers to the email messages to indicate the type of data being sent. These headers contain information about the encoding, content type, and structure of the message. For example, the header "Content-Type" specifies the type of data in the message, such as text, image, or video. The header "Content-Transfer-Encoding" specifies the method used to encode the data in the message, such as Base64 or Quoted-Printable.

When an email client receives a MIME-encoded message, it examines the headers to determine the type of data in the message and how to display it. If the message contains an image, for example, the email client will extract the image file from the message and display it inline or as an attachment, depending on the client's configuration.

Overall, MIME allows for a more rich and a more diverse set of data to be sent over email and improves the functionality of email messages.

MIME with SMTP and POP

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard that extends the format of email messages for the character set to support text in it other than ASCII, as well as for the attachments of audio, video, images, and application programs.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is the standard protocol used for sending email messages over the Internet. SMTP servers are responsible for forwarding email messages from one email server to another until they reach their final destination.

POP (Post Office Protocol) is a protocol used for retrieving email messages from a remote server. When an email message is sent to an email address hosted by a POP server, the message is stored on the server until the email client retrieves it.

MIME is used in conjunction with SMTP and POP to enable the transmission and retrieval of multimedia email messages, including attachments. SMTP servers and email clients that support MIME can encode and decode attachments, allowing them to be included in email messages as binary data. POP servers that support MIME can store and retrieve these attachments along with the text of the email message. MIME with SMTP and POP enable users to send and receive multimedia email messages, which can include text, images, audio, video, and other types of files, making email communication more versatile and flexible.


MIME is a standard for extending the format of email messages to support the attachment of various file types beyond just plain text. It allows users to send multimedia content such as images, audio, and video within email messages. It defines a set of header fields that are added to email messages to specify the content type and encoding of the message, as well as the type of data contained in the message. The MIME header plays a critical role in ensuring that email and HTTP messages are transmitted correctly and can be interpreted and displayed properly by the receiving system. Overall, the MIME protocol is a versatile and widely used protocol in computer applications, enabling the transmission of different types of content securely and efficiently.