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Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Model

OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Misc

Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet?

4G Mobile Communication Technology

What is 4G?

4G is a fourth-generation wireless or mobile communication system, succeeding 3G (third generation) wireless communication and preceding 5G (fifth generation) communication.

It is based on the capabilities defined by International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Every generation of wireless communication brings increased speed and network capacity.

4G cellular data or wireless communication provides speed transmission of over 100mbps, whereas 3G provides only 14mbps.

It is much faster than the 3G network and has brought a new and fast experience to the next level. To better understand 4G, let’s first discuss about Mobile Communication.

What is Mobile Communication

Mobile communication is a way to communicate wirelessly. It allows people to communicate with each other without using any physical link, irrespective of location, time, and distance.

It allows the transfer of media, voice, and text messages worldwide without any physical connection.

4G connection can be established through a Mobile phone, Smartphone, or Cellular phone.

When was 4G introduced?

  • It was introduced to the public in the year 2010 in order to meet the fast speed and network requirements.
  • In 2012, the first company to launch a 4G network was Airtel using LTE technology in Kolkata.
  • Later it was launched in Banglore, Pune, Mohali, Chandigarh, and Panchkula.
  • Then, 4G services were launched by various broadband companies like Aircel, Vodafone, Jio, etc.

Features of 4G Network

  • It provides high speed at a low cost
  • It provides high voice quality.
  • Ensures high-speed transmission of data to any location
  • It aims to provide scalable network capacity, network mobility, and portability.
  • It is much faster compared to 3G network.

Network Standards of 4G

Many network standards are available that provide 4G connectivity used by different cellular providers.

  1. LTE (pre 4G- 3G)
  2. LTE Advance,
  3. WiMax
  4. Ultra-Mobile Broadband (UMB).

4G network mainly operates on two network standards which are LTE-A and WiMAX:

LTE-A (Long-Term Evolution- Advanced)

  • LTE is an abbreviation for Long-Term Evolution. It is used in 4G connections, a standard for high-speed wireless communication. With the help of LTE, data is transmitted with faster speed and lower latency(the time it takes to travel data in the network).
  • LTE is not a technology but a path to provide 4G network capacity. LTE-A provides much more speed and bandwidth than 3G but not at a fixed rate. LTE-A speed for a 4G network varies from 20mbps to 100mbps.

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwaves Access (WiMAX)

  • WiMAX, or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwaves Access, is a wireless connection standard similar to Wi-Fi. It helps the user to access data without any wire or physical link. It is similar to WiFi but not a WiFi. It provides a connection range from cell phone towers to a high-speed network like broadband. The highest range of data speed  provided by WiMAX is upto 128 Mbps for downlink and 56 Mbps for uplink. WiMAX in a mobile offers a 4G network, but all 4G networks do not provide WiMAX network standards.

Advantages of 4G Network

  • 4G network is a high-speed network that is a major requirement today.
  • The cost of a 4G network is much less than a 3G network. Thus, it provides high speed at a low cost.
  • 4G is a portable network connection, i.e., it provides a connection to everywhere and is easy to carry.
  • Accessing services and applications through a 4G network connection has become easier.
  • The quality of services has increased with 4G.
  • Communication systems have become affordable to the lower-middle class with the 4G mobile connection.
  • It has high bandwidth with tight network security.

Disadvantages of 4G Network

  • The roaming of data and voice together has yet to be implemented.
  • Battery consumption is high in 4G network connectivity.
  • The device which is required to access 4G connectivity is quite expensive.

How does 4G work?

4G connection works through an antenna that transmits over radio frequencies, enabling mobile devices to connect with mobile networks at a basic level.

The transmission and receiving capabilities of the 4G network are done with the help of MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) technologies. MIMO and OFDM enable high bandwidth and network capacity as compared to 3G. With the help of MIMO, the 4G network has reduced network congestion compared to the 3G network, in which 4G can support more users.

4G supports all Internet Protocols (IP) where data and voice transmission is possible, whereas 3G network supports only data transmission over IP and enables voice over circuit switch network.

Future of 4G

5G is the future of the 4G mobile network. Although, 4G is a fast and comparatively better network than 3G but still has some facilities required to compete with today's requirements.

 5G is the next generation in the field of mobile network technology. The 5G network promised to increase bandwidth and speed with upto 20 Gbps which is much higher than 4G, which only provides up to 100 Mbps speed.

5G will also consume less energy than the 4G network, enabling the devices' long battery life. It will have a latency of less than 1 millisecond and less congestion.