Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Transport Protocol in Computer Networks

Transport protocol is a critical component of computer networks that provides reliable and efficient data transfer between two endpoints. The transport layer is responsible for handling end-to-end communication between applications running on different hosts or devices.

“Computer networks”has two commonly used transport protocols:

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

  • TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of data between applications. TCP establishes a connection between two endpoints before transmitting data and uses various mechanisms like flow control and congestion control to ensure that data is delivered without loss or corruption.
  • UDP, on the other hand, is a connectionless protocol that provides fast, unreliable, and unordered delivery of data. Unlike TCP, UDP does not establish a connection before transmitting data and does not provide any mechanisms for error checking or recovery.

In summary, the transport protocol is an essential component of computer networks that enables reliable and efficient communication between applications running on different hosts or devices.

Working of Transport Protocol

Transport protocols provide end-to-end communication services to applications running on different hosts or devices. Two commonly used transport protocols are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

  • Connection Establishment: The sender (client) initiates a connection request to the receiver (server) by sending a SYN (synchronize) packet. The receiver responds with a SYN-ACK (synchronize-acknowledge) packet, acknowledging the request.
  • Congestion Control: TCP manages congestion by monitoring the network traffic and adjusting the rate at which data is sent to avoid congestion.
  • Error Detection and Correction: TCP uses a checksum mechanism to detect errors in the data transmission. If an error is detected, TCP requests the sender to retransmit the affected segment.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

  • Data Transmission: Unlike TCP, UDP does not establish a connection before transmitting data. The sender simply sends the data in the form of datagrams to the receiver.
  • Error Detection: UDP uses a checksum mechanism to detect errors in the data transmission. However, it does not request retransmission of the affected datagram in case of errors.
  • No Flow Control or Congestion Control: UDP does not manage flow control or congestion control. Therefore, it can result in packets being lost or delivered out of order.
  • No Connection Termination: since UDP does not establish a connection, there is any need to terminate the connection explicitly.

Responsibilities of a Transport Layer

The transport layer is responsible for ensuring reliable and efficient communication between two hosts (applications) over a network. Some of the key responsibilities of the transport layer are:

  • End-to-end communication: The transport layer provides end-to-end communication between two applications by establishing a logical connection between them.
  • Error control: The transport layer detects errors in the data transmitted over the network and provides mechanisms to recover lost or corrupted data.
  • Flow control: The transport layer regulates the flow of data between two applications to ensure that the receiver is not overwhelmed with data.
  • Congestion control: The transport layer manages network congestion by monitoring network traffic and adjusting the transmission rate to avoid network congestion.
  • Multiplexing and Demultiplexing: The transport layer enables multiple applications to use the same network connection by multiplexing the data from multiple applications at the sender and demultiplexing it at the receiver.

Advantages and disadvantages of Transport Protocol


  • Reliable data transfer: TCP provides reliable data transfer, which means that packets are acknowledged by the receiver and retransmitted if necessary. This helps ensure that data is delivered without errors or losses.
  • Flow control: TCP also provides flow control, which means that it regulates the rate at which data is sent to prevent the sender from overwhelming the receiver.
  • Congestion control: TCP includes congestion control, which adjusts the rate at which data is sent to avoid network congestion.
  • Packet ordering: TCP guarantees that packets are delivered in the order they were sent, which is important for many types of applications.


  • Overhead: TCP adds a significant amount of overhead to each packet, which can slow down the transfer of data.
  • Latency: TCP's reliability mechanisms can introduce latency, which is the time delay between when a packet is sent and when it is received.
  • Limited scalability: TCP's congestion control mechanisms are designed to work well in small networks but can become less effective in larger ones.

UDP doesn't have reliability or flow control features, which can lead to lost or out-of-order packets.


In summary, transport protocols have both advantages and disadvantages. TCP provides reliable data transfer, flow control, congestion control, and packet ordering, but at the cost of overhead and latency. UDP is faster and has lower overhead, but does not provide reliability or flow control. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the requirements of the specific application.