Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network

IPv4 vs IPv6

What is an IP?

The process or protocol used to transmit data from one computer to another over the internet is known as Internet Protocol (IP). Every computer connected to the internet, or host, and has at least one unique IP address which is different from every other computer.

The modern internet is made possible by IP which means a fundamental set of protocols. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers published a paper by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication" in May 1974, which provided the first description of IP.

What is an IP Address?

IP offers methods for connecting various systems and exchanging data. An IP address makes it possible to navigate each device in an IP network. An IP address is a unique address to the system that identifies the data. This process is same as like a street address throgh which we can identify the location of a house or place of a business.

DHCP is typically used to assign IP addresses (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). The public IP address of a specific device can be assigned by an internet service provider using DHCP. The term "public IP address" refers to an IP address that can be accessed via the public internet.

What is  IPv4?

In 1983, IPv4 was the first implemented version of IP for use in the ARPANET. A network's hosts can be uniquely identified using IPv4 addresses.

There are various configuration options for IPv4 with multiple devices, including manual and automatic configurations, depending on the type of network.

IPv4 is the internet protocol of version 4 and IPv6 is also the newest internet protocol of version 6 which  povides more efficienc. And, the complexity of IPV6 is much better than IPv4.

There are five different address classes in IPv4: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E.

Addresses for IPv4 are 32-bit integers that are expressed in decimal form.

Example: An IPv4 address could be

There are 3 different parts of the IPV4 Protocol :

1. Network Parts

2. Host Parts

3. Subnet Number

Characteristics of IPv4

  • An IPv4 address could be 32 bits long.
  • The bits in an IPv4 address are separated by dots and could be a number.
  • There are twelve header fields, and each one is twenty characters long.
  • It has addresses in the form of Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast formats.
  • It supports VLSM which means Virtual Length Subnet Mask.
  • Using the Post Address Resolution Protocol, the MAC address is translated into an IPv4 address.
  • The routed daemon may support the RIP routing protocol.
  • Networks should be created manually or using DHCP.

Advantages of IPv4

  • IPv4 security allows encryption to maintain security and privacy.
  • There are currently quite 85000 useful routers in the IPV4 network, which is significant.
  • Without NAT, connecting multiple devices across a large network becomes simple.
  • This is a model of communication that offers both cost-effective and high-quality knowledge transfer.
  • Redefining IPV4 addresses allows for flawless encoding.
  • Due to collective addressing's increased effectiveness, routing is more scalable and cost-effective in IPv4.
  • Network data communication in multicast organizations becomes more specialized.

Disadvantages of IPv4

  • It limits the growth of the internet for current users and makes it difficult for new users to use the internet.
  • IPv4 Internet Routing is ineffective.
  • IPv4 is labor-intensive, complex, slow, and prone to errors, and it has expensive system management.
  • Less security features.

What is IPv6?

A network layer protocol called Protocol Version 6 enables communication over networks. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created IPv6 in December 1998 to replace IPv4 due to the increasing number of users on Internet worldwide.

In addition to increasing address space, the IETF also improved IPv6 in comparison to IPv4 in its work. The performance, security, and efficiency of the IPv6 protocol are enhanced. It allows internet service providers to reduce the size of their routing tables by increasing the hierarchical structure of their organization.

The format of an IPv6 address is 2620:cc:8000:1c82:544c:cc2e:f2fa:5a9b. There are eight numbers instead of four, and colons are used to separate them. The letters are used in IPv6 addresses because they are written in hexadecimal (Base 16) notation, which needs 16 different symbols to uniquely represent the Base 10 numbers.

There are 3 types of IPv6 Address

1. Unicast Addresses
2. Multicast Addresses
3. Anycast Addresses

Advantages of IPv6

  • It is more reliable than Ipv4.
  • Multicast is supported by IPv6 as opposed to broadcast by IPv4. This function enables the simultaneous transmission of packet flows with high bandwidth requirements, such as multimedia streams.
  • IPv6 includes IPSecurity, which offers data integrity and confidentiality.
  • Routing is so effective.
  • Most importantly, IPv6 is the final solution for increasing the number of nodes in the Global-network.

Disadvantages of IPv6

  • It will take a long time to switch over to IPv6 because IPv4 is highly used.
  • Machines using IPv4 and IPv6 cannot speak to one another directly. To do that, they require independent third-party technology.
The address length for IPv4 is 32 bits.The address length for IPv6 is 128 bits.
Connection integrity in Ipv4 for end-to-end is not possible.Connection integrity in IPv6 for end-to-end is possible.
It supports both DHCP and manual address configuration.It supports automatic and renumbering address configuration.
The security feature is application dependent in this version of the protocolThe IPv6 protocol includes an internal security feature called IPSEC.
Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E are the five different IP address classes that are available in IPv4.There are no IP address classes in IPv6.
It is compatible with VLSM. Here, VLSM refers to the process by which IPv4 transforms IP addresses into subnets of various sizes.VLSM cannot be supported by it.
It doesn't offer encryption or authentication.It offers both encryption and authentication.
The checksum field in IPv4 is available.There is no checksum field in IPv6.
Fragmentation is carried out by sender and forwarding routers in IPv4.Only the sender performs fragmentation in IPv6.
Dot-decimal notation is typically used to represent IPv4 addresses. It consists of four decimal numbers separated by dots, each ranging from 0 to 255.An IPv6 address consists of eight groups which has four hexadecimal digits, each representing 16 bits.
Example of IPv4: of IPv6: 1999:0111:3267:DETY:0798:0000:0000:VCDD


In 1983, IPv4 was the first version of IP which was used in the ARPANET. IPv4 is the internet protocol of version 4 and IPv6 is also the newest internet protocol of version 6 which in terms of efficiency and complexity is much better than IPv4.

Addresses for IPv4 are 32-bit integers that are expressed in decimal form.