Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network

FTP: File Transfer Protocol

File Transfer Protocol

File transfer protocol is commonly called FTP. The most popular service of the Internet is to download the files. In other words, it is to transfer the files from one device to another device on the Internet. Every day thousands of files are transferred from one device to another device on the Internet using FTP. This protocol is also be used to upload the files on the Internet. FTP executes at the top of the TCP/IP stack.

File Transfer Protocol

FTP is also a client-server protocol. Therefore, it establishes two TCP connections between the client and the server in which the first connection is used to control the conservation, and the second connection is used to transfer the files.

FTP Server

A computer that uses FTP to transfer the data is called an FTP server. Any user can access the data that is stored in the FTP server, while some data can be accessed by special users.

FTP is divided into two parts:

1. Anonymous Server

2. Non-Anonymous Server


Telnet stands for the Terminal Network. Telnet is a text-based and application layer protocol that is used to access the remote devices via TCP/IP network. Telnet was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in 1969. Telnet provides such services that are based on the command-line interface.

File Transfer Protocol

Telnet Concept

Telnet is an oldest internet facility. It allows you to use a remote computer sitting on any computer. It is also called a remote log-in method. Usually, a telnet program gives you a text-based window for another computer. If you have permission to access that system, you can work on it in the same way as you do on your computer. This facility is very useful for those people who want to do such work on other computers, which cannot be done through other facilities like FTP and HTTP.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

The HTTP is an application layer protocol. It is used to transfer the data over the websites. HTTP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite. It defines the commands and utilities used to send the data to the web page.

File Transfer Protocol

Features of HTTP

There are three basic features of HTTP:

  1. Connectionless
  2. Media independent
  3. Stateless

Connectionless: The HTTP client initiates the request to the HTTP server, and after a request is made, the client waits for the response. The server responses to the request of the client, and it sends a response to the client. After that, the client disconnects the connection.

Media independent: Any type of data can be sent via HTTP.

Stateless: HTTP is connectionless, and similarly, it is a stateless protocol because the client and server only know about each other during a current request.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)

HTTPS is an application layer protocol through which secure communication can be done from any website over the Internet. It is a protocol that uses HTTP over connections encrypted by transport-layer security. It is mostly used to secure online shopping and banking websites.

HTTPS uses port 443 to transfer its data.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

SNMP was developed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). It is used to manage the network. It is an internet standard protocol that monitors devices in IP networks, and it also collects and organizes the information of these devices. SNMP is supported by most network devices such as the hub, switch, router, bridge, server, modem, and printer, etc.

The concept of SNMP is based on the manager and agent. A manager is like a host that controls a group of agents, such as routers.

File Transfer Protocol

SNMP Manager: It is a computer system that monitors network traffic by the SNMP agent, and it queries these agents, takes answers, and controls them.

SNMP Agent: It is a software program that is located in a network element. It collects real-time information from the device and passes this information to the SNMP manager.

Management components

It has two components

  1. SMI
  2. MIB
File Transfer Protocol

SNMP Management: It defines the structure of packets that is shared between a manager and an agent. 

SMI (Structure of Management Information): SMI is a network management component that defines the standard rules for the naming object and object type (including range and length) and also shows how to encode objects and values.

MIB (Management Information Base): MIB is the second component of the network management. It is virtual information storage where management information is stored.