Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Session Layer in OSI Model

This article will help you in getting a better understanding of the Session layer in the OSI model.

The session layer is the fifth layer from the bottom in the OSI model. The session Layer helps in establishing communication sessions between users on discrete machines. It terminates the connection between network applications after the completion of their communication. Some types of connections will last long for the transfer of messages in a single direction. This is called a half-duplex transmission. The transmission in which the message is transferred in two directions is called duplex transmission.

The Session layer is also capable of handling the failures of transport layer from upper-layer protocols. Handling Failures may include handling errors and error correction in endpoint transmission. Session layers also help in grouping various transport streams which are related to a particular application. There are various protocols involved in the session layer a few of them are mentioned below

AppleTalk, Zone Information Protocol(ZIP), X.225, etc. The main duty/job of establishing, Maintaining, synchronizing, and terminating the communication sessions between various applications

Working of Session layer

The Session layer considers the work of transport layer(which passes its all services to the session layer) as input and establishes, maintains and synchronizes the communication sessions between various end-user applications. Before establishing the sessions, it follows various criteria and things.

Firstly, it maps the session address with the shipping address. After that, it selects the necessary transport quality service parameters. Now it transfers user data limitedly. The session layer properly monitors the transfer of data. The session layer is capable of carrying out the transfer of large data.

Functionalities of Session layer

The main functionalities of the Session Layer are mentioned below.

1. Dialog Control:

Session layer acts as a dialog controller i.e., it can easily identify and choose the mode of communication for a specific session. It allows two communication machines to enter into a single dialog.

There two modes of communication that are allowed by the session layer they are half-duplex and duplex. Half-duplex is a mode of communication in which the transfer of message will occur in a single direction whereas, in duplex communication mode, the transfer of message will occur in a double direction.

2. Synchronization

Synchronization is a methodology of marking up the checkpoints while working  of Session layer so that whenever there is a pause in the working of the session layer the work can be resumed from the checking rather than again starting the process from the initial point.

For example: If a System is transferring a file consisting of 5000 pages so adding a checkpoint after the transfer of every 200 pages is suggestable so that 200 pages unit of the file is successfully transferred and acknowledged. If there is a crash or a failure while transferring page number 755 then simply the transfer will again from 701 rather than starting from page number 1 to 700.

3. Token Management

This layer also provides the service of managing tokens. So, the situation in which multiple users try to access the same critical operation simultaneously can be prevented.

All the functionalities of the session layer are implemented in the application environment with the help of remote procedure calls(RPC). The session layer also synchronizes the data coming from various sources.

It efficiently controls the single or multiple connections for every end-user application and it can directly communicate with transport and presentation layers.

Protocols of Session layer

There are multiple protocols involved in session layer of OSI model they are:

  • AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol(ADSP): This protocol is designed and developed by Apple Inc in 1985. it provides various features like it allows Local area networks to get connected without any setup.
    Again, this ADSP consists of 2 protocols they are AppleTalk Address resolution protocol(AARP) and name binding protocol(NBP).
  • Password Authentication Protocol(PAP): it is a password-centric protocol which is accessed by point-to-point protocol(PPP)for validating the users whether they are authorized or not. It validates the identity of the client using two-way handshake property. Here, client transfers the data to the server and server receives the data and acknowledges it by setting ACK flag to 1.
  • Point to point Tunnelling protocol(PPTP): PPTP protocol is used for implementing virtual private networks(VPN).  It provides high security levels and remote access levelsto VPNs.
  • Real-time Transport Control Protocol(RTCP): Thiss provides all the statistics and detailed control information of a specific RTP(Real-time transport protocol) session.
    Its main function or purpose is to facilitate the feedback on service quality in media distribution by sending the statistical data at regular interval of time. Here the statistical data can be data packet count or packet loss to the attenders in the streaming session of multimedia.