Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Internet Protocol

Ipv4 vs Ipv6 Supernetting in Network Layer TCP Ports TCP vs UDP TCP TCP Congestion


Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Difference between Active and Passive FTP Difference between Transport and Network Layer Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Difference between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Difference between GUI Testing and Usability Testing Difference between Sanity Testing and Smoke Testing Differences between Distance Vector and Link State Routing Difference Between Intranet and VPN Difference between VLAN and VSAN


APIPA What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol What is Wired and Wireless Networking What is a Hardware Firewall What is PAN What is Unit Testing? Why developers should learn Unit Testing What is Data Encapsulation and Data Decapsulation in Networking What is Macro Virus and how they affect Computer Systems What is VLAN What is VSAN What is WSN Network What is Cidr in AWS What are Elementary Data Link Layer Protocols What is An Ad Hoc Network What is The Ieee 802 What is Tunneling in Computer Networks What is Twisted Pair Cable What is a Computer Network What is an ISP


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks Bit Stuffing and Bit De-Stuffing Firewall Methodologies Go Back ARQ in Computer Network Zone Based Firewall Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethernet Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Topology Advantages and Disadvantages of the Star Topology Checksum in Networking Delays in Computer Network Functions of Data Link Layer in the OSI Model Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol Guided Transmission Media in Computer Networks IGRP Routing Protocol in Computer Networks Modes Of Bluetooth Connection Protocols of a Network Layer Single Program Multiple Data Data Transfer Instructions with Examples Levels of Cache Memory Logical Addressing in Computer Network Multiple Access Protocols in Computer Network Advantages of Unguided Media Back Side Bus in Computer Network Router and Brouter in Computer Network 2 Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Data Link Layer Services Provided to the Network Layer Functions Of the Transport Layer Computer Network Security Requirements Transmission Impairments in Computer Networks Types of Modems Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Brust Errors In Computer Network Digital Signal in Computer Network Network Security Requirements Router in Computer Network Check Sum Error Detection Checksum Example Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Linear Bus Topology Magnetic Media in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Advantages and Disadvantages of Routers Advantages of Installing a Network Application Layer in Computer Networks Application Layer Protocols in Computer Networks Application of Data Communication Network Central Device in Star Topology Multiple Access Techniques in Wireless Communication Parallel Port in Computer Resource Sharing in Computer Networks Static Routing Algorithms in Computer Network TDMA Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking ATM Network Authentication in Computer Network Automatic Repeat Request Arq Characteristics of Digital Signals Cim Data Transmission Methods Components of Data Communication in Computer Network Disadvantages of Tree Topology DVRMP in Computer Network Mac Layer Functions and Protocol Pros and Cons of Extranet Protocol and its Types Resource Sharing in Computer Network Simplex Data Transmission in Computer Network Top 10 Benefits of Computer Networking Types of Computer Buses Unguided Media 4 Layers of Tcp IP Hierarchical Routing Algorithm in Computer Networks Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks

Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable

What is Fiber Optics Cable?

Fiber optics cable transforms the information at a light pulse. We can transfer voice, data, and video through the fiber optics cable. The fiber optics cable consists of a glass core and glass core coated with Kevlar membranes to provide strength to the fiber optics cable. This cable can be connected with the necessary physical connection. 

Operating Principle

The fiber optics cable has optical fiber. This optical fiber carries the light and allows the information to transfer in the form of light. These fibers consist of a core and a protective layer, and due to the phenomenon of total internal reflection, the data can be transmitted in the form of light through the fiber optics cable. Every fiber optics cable has an individual coated fiber, and every individual coated fiber has the resin buffer layer and core tube. Sometimes we may use dark and light-absorbing material only to prevent the cross-talk between the wires. This method prevents data leakage from the fiber. Several protective layers, when added with a glass core, then a fiber optics cable can be formed. 


The following table gives sufficient information about the connectors:

Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable

Joining Fiber Optics Cable

There are two methods available for the joining of the fiber optics cable. These two methods are mechanical splicing and fusion splicing. Here, the permanent connection between two fiber optic cables is known as splicing. Typically we can choose one splicing over another splicing due to economics. The fusion splicing is lower per connection, whereas the initial investment has higher per connection. Mechanical splicing is a type of alignment device. It is specially designed to hold the two fiber ends so that the light can pass from one end to another end. During the joining process of optical fiber, the main thing is the core of the cable is perfectly aligned with each other. During the alignment, the amount of light lost some data. If we do not align the cable properly, then part of some light gets lost during the transmission process. 

Four leading causes of optical loss

  1. Poor core alignment: The poor alignment of the fiber optics cable occurred due to the optical connector loss.
  2. Axial run out: An optical loss of a connector occurred due to the improper cutting of the optics cable during the joining of the two wires. To avoid this axial run out, we have to increase the angle of cutting during the joining of the two wires. 
  3. Gap: The gap between the optical fiber also causes the optical loss of the connectors. For example, if the connection between the face and the optical fibers is not correctly aligned, then the loss of connection results due to the air gap between the fibers. The end of the gap between optical fibers results in 0.6dB due to the change in the refractive index of cable and wire. 
  4. Reflection: The end of the optical fiber should be well polished so that we can minimize data loss during the transmission. A rough surface can emit more light during the transmission of the data since the fiber optics cable is very small, so that an unpolished surface can emit more scattering of light. Cleaning the end of the optical line is very important for merging two cables. 

Fusion Splicing

Fusion splicing involves joining two optical fibers end-to-end using some source of heat.

The result is fusing the two fibers so that light passing through the fibers is not scattered or reflected by the splice and so that the splice and the region surrounding it are almost as strong as the virgin fiber itself.

This produces a continuous connection between the fibers enabling deficient loss of light transmission. The heat source is usually an electric arc, but it can also be a laser, gas flame, or a tungsten filament through which current is passed.

Fusion splicing is the most widely used method, providing the lowest loss and negligible reflectance and the most robust and reliable joint between two fibers.