Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

What is Wired and Wireless Networking?

In our daily life, we come to see the word wired and wireless network most commonly. Nowadays, the world is most likely becoming wireless. In the older days, most people used wired networks only, we used to have wired headphones where the content transfer speed was excellent, and nowadays, we are seeing EarPods, which work using Bluetooth, where we tend to see latency in transferring the sound.

There are lots of advantages and disadvantages to using wire and wireless networks. In our daily life, the most common thing we use is the smartphone which works with a wireless internet connection and connects to Wi-Fi wirelessly. The best example of a wireless network is Wi-Fi itself. The best example of a wired network is cable TV.

What is Wired Networking?

The term "wired networking" describes the transmission of data between devices via actual cables and wires. Wireless Networking, on the other hand, transmits data via radio waves.

The usage of wired Networking has been around for a while and is still used today in a variety of locations, including homes, workplaces, and data centres. Ethernet and Fiber Optic networks are the two most used forms of wired networks.

Data is carried through Ethernet networks utilizing cables, generally consisting of copper wire and available in a variety of categories such as Cat5, Cat6, and Cat7. These cables link equipment that helps control the flow of data, including computers, routers, and switches.

Data is exchanged across fibre optic networks utilizing light signals that are conveyed through delicate glass or plastic fibres. Since it can carry data over considerably longer distances than copper cables, this sort of network is frequently employed for long-distance communication. The fact that wired Networking offers a more dependable and secure connection than wireless Networking. This is due to the fact that connected connections are less vulnerable to hacker intervention and environmental interference from other devices.

Yet, in big or complicated contexts, wired Networking may also be more expensive and more difficult to set up than wireless Networking. As devices must be physically linked to the network through cables, they may also be less versatile.

Different types of Wired Networks:

There are several varieties of wired networks, such as:

Ethernet: The most widely used wired network technology in both households and companies is Ethernet. It transmits data through twisted-pair cables at rates of 10 Mbps to 100 Gbps. This Ethernet uses the technology of a Local Area Network(LAN)

Fiber Optic: Fiber Optic networks carry data using light signals through fibre-optic connections. They are capable of substantially faster data transmission than Ethernet, with some networks capable of 400 Gbps.

Twisted pair: The common copper cable known as twisted pair is used to link residential and commercial computers to the phone provider. Two insulated copper wires are wound around each other in a spiral pattern to minimize electromagnetic induction or crosstalk between pairs of wires. Twisted pair connections require both wires for each connection. The category of the cable, the quality of the cable, and the distance between the devices are only a few of the variables that affect how quickly data can be carried through twisted pair connections.

Coaxial: Coaxial networks, which are frequently used for cable television and high-speed internet access, employ coaxial cables to carry data. They are capable of 10 Gbps data transmission rates.

Powerline: Powerline networks transfer data between devices by using the existing electrical infrastructure. They could be an easy way to extend a network into challenging-to-wire portions of a building.

Token Ring: Token Ring networks send data using a token-passing protocol; a device may only transmit data if it is holding the token. This kind of network was common in the 1980s and the early 1990s, but Ethernet has mostly taken its place.

ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks transport data using tiny, fixed-size cells. They were widely employed for high-speed data transfer and video conferencing in the 1990s, but Ethernet and other technologies have mostly taken their place.

What is wireless Networking?

Wireless Networking is the field of computer science that deals with the technology that enables devices to interact with one another through wireless media, such as radio waves or infrared signals, without the use of physical connections or wires. Without the limitations of a wired network, it enables users to access the Internet, transmit data, and share resources like printers and files.

The way we connect to the Internet and access information has been completely transformed by wireless networking technologies. It has enabled the connection of devices in a range of settings, including homes, workplaces, airports, and public spaces, giving consumers flexibility and convenience. The most popular wireless networking technologies include cellular networks, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Zigbee. Depending on how they are to be used, these technologies have a range of varied speed, features, and capabilities.

Different types of Wireless Networks:

Wireless networks come in a variety of forms, each with unique features, capabilities, and ranges. Some of the most typical types of wireless networks are listed below:

Wi-Fi Networks: Wi-Fi networks are the most common and commonly utilized form of the wireless network. To link devices to the Internet or to one another inside a local area network, they employ radio waves (LAN). Depending on the Wi-Fi technology being utilized, Wi-Fi networks can operate on a variety of frequencies and have a range of speeds.

Cellular Networks: Mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, may access wireless communication services over cellular networks. To connect to cell towers, which in turn link to the Internet or other devices, they employ radio waves. Users of cellular networks may access the Internet and make phone calls from virtually anywhere, thanks to their extensive service area.

Bluetooth networks: These short-range wireless networks are used to link devices together in a personal area network (PAN). They are frequently used to transmit files between gadgets, such as between two cell phones or between a computer and a smartphone. Bluetooth networks are mostly used to link devices that are close to each other because of their short range.

Zigbee Networks: Zigbee networks are low-power wireless systems utilized by Internet of Things (IoT) gadgets, including smart home gadgets and sensors. They create a mesh network using radio waves, where any device may function as a router to increase the network's reach. Zigbee networks function for long periods of time on a single battery despite having a modest data rate.

Infrared Networks: Infrared networks link devices together over short distances by transmitting infrared signals. They are frequently used to transmit files between gadgets, such as between two cell phones or between a computer and a smartphone. A clear line of sight must exist between the devices for infrared networks because of their restricted range.

These are a few of the most prevalent varieties of wireless networks, each having specific advantages and disadvantages. The exact application, the needed range, and the desired data rate will determine the sort of wireless network to utilize.

Differences between wired and wireless Networking:

Data may be sent between devices via both wired and wireless Networking. The following are some significant variations between wired and wireless Networking:

Physical Connection: Wireless Networking employs radio waves to send data between devices, whereas wired Networking connects devices via physical cords.

Range: Depending on the wireless technology being utilized, wireless networks may often cover an area considerably bigger than that covered by wired networks, which normally only extend as far as the length of the cable.

Limited mobility: Limited mobility is provided by wired networks since devices must be physically linked to the network using wires. More mobility is provided by wireless networks, which provide unrestricted device movement within their coverage area.

Security: Due to the difficulty of intercepting data through a physical connection compared to a wireless signal, wired networks are typically thought to be more secure than wireless ones. Yet both kinds of networks may be protected with the right security measures, including encryption.

Speed: Due to a physical cable's greater average data transmission rate than a wireless signal, wired networks are normally quicker than wireless ones. But, more recent wireless technologies, including Wi-Fi 6 and 5G, can move data at tremendous speeds.

Installation and Upkeep: Because physical wires need to be run between devices for wired networks, these tasks might be more difficult.

 In general, wireless networks are simpler to set up and manage since there is no need for physical wires to link devices.

Ultimately, wired and wireless Networking each have their own advantages and disadvantages, and choosing one to employ will depend on the particular application and specifications.

Similarities of Wired and Wireless Networking:

There are many parallels between wired and wireless Networking in terms of technology, communication protocols, and network administration strategies. The following list of commonalities is detailed:

Data Transfer: Both wired and wireless networks are built to make it simple for devices to communicate data with one another. Whereas wireless networks utilize radio waves to carry data, wired networks employ wires. Text, photos, music, and video can all be transmitted across wired and wireless networks, respectively.

Communication Protocols: The same communication protocols are used by wired and wireless networks to speed up data transfer and device connectivity. They consist of TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and other protocols. It is ensured that devices may interact with one another, whether they are linked to a wired or wireless network, by using the same protocols.

Security: In order to prevent unauthorized access, data theft, and other security issues, both wired and wireless networks need security measures. Physical security measures, such as closed server rooms and cable locks, can be used to protect wired networks. Firewalls, encryption, and authentication are all used by wireless networks to defend against security threats.

Network Topologies: Several network topologies may be used by wired and wireless networks to link devices and speed up data transport. The bus, star, mesh, and ring topologies are some of the most used network topologies. The topology utilized relies on the needs of the network and the devices linked to it, and both wired and wireless networks are capable of using the same topologies.

Network management: Network management is necessary for both wired and wireless networks in order to guarantee peak performance and address issues as they develop. Software for network monitoring, network analyzers, and network diagnostic tools are examples of network management tools. These instruments support network administrators in locating and fixing issues that may compromise the network's functionality and dependability.

Network Devices: To support data transfer and communication between devices, both wired and wireless networks employ network devices such as switches, routers, hubs, access points, and network adapters. These gadgets control the data flow between gadgets and link them to the network. The choice of the device relies on the network design and the needs of the devices linked to it, and the same types of devices can be used in wired and wireless networks.

Advantages of Wired Networking:

There are various benefits of wired Networking versus Wireless Networking:

Speed: As compared to wireless networks, wired networks can offer quicker data transmission speeds. The fastest Wi-Fi standard, Wi-Fi 6, has a top speed of 9.6 gigabits per second, but Ethernet, the most used wired network technology, may offer data transfer speeds of up to 100 gigabits per second.

Security: Due to their immunity from interference from other wireless signals and lower vulnerability to hacking and eavesdropping, wired networks are more secure than wireless ones. Physical security measures for wired networks can also be used to protect the network, such as closed server rooms and cable locks.

Reliability: Wired networks are more dependable than wireless networks because they are not vulnerable to interference from other wireless signals and do not suffer from signal deterioration with distance. Moreover, signal loss resulting from obstructions like walls and other barriers is less of an issue for wired networks.

Cost: As wired networks don't need as much equipment or continuous maintenance as wireless networks, they are often less expensive to set up and operate. Compared to wireless networking equipment, Ethernet cables are also less costly.

Compatibility: Wired networks are more compatible with a larger variety of devices than wireless networks in terms of compatibility. The majority of gadgets feature Ethernet connectors, whereas many older ones lack Wi-Fi capability.

Bandwidth: In terms of bandwidth, wired networks have a larger capacity than wireless ones, allowing them to process more data concurrently without experiencing any lag. Businesses and organizations that need to efficiently and swiftly move massive volumes of data will find this to be of great interest.

For enterprises and organizations that require quick, effective data transfer and communication between devices, wired Networking is often a dependable, secure, and affordable solution.

Disadvantages of Wired Networking:

The term "wired networking" describes the transmission of data through physical wires between networked devices. While there are certain benefits to wired Networking, such as quicker and more dependable connections, there are also some serious drawbacks to take into account. The following list of wired Networking's principal drawbacks is detailed:

Restricted mobility: Cables are used in wired Networking to physically link devices to the network. This implies that it is impossible for devices to wander around a room freely and still be connected to the network. The length of the cables or the number of ports might limit mobility, making it challenging to adjust to shifting demands in a dynamic setting.

Costs associated with infrastructure: Significant infrastructure investments are needed for wired Networking, including cabling, switches, routers, and other network hardware. In big installations, the cost of these components can quickly pile up, and installation, maintenance, and upgrade costs can also be considerable.

Physical damage susceptibility: Since wired networks rely on physical wires, they are vulnerable to harm from natural disasters like floods, fires, and earthquakes, as well as human interference like vandalism, unintentional damage, or intentional sabotage. It might be difficult and time-consuming to repair or replace the affected components when the network infrastructure is damaged.

Restricted scalability: With wired networks that depend on physical wiring, managing and maintaining a network as it expands can become more difficult. More cabling, new switches or routers, and other equipment may be needed for network expansion, and their installation can be costly and time-consuming. As the network expands, controlling it and making sure it is dependable and stable may also get more difficult.

Restricted flexibility: Fixed topology is a common feature of wired networks, which means that data transmission is governed by the physical arrangement of the network's components. Due to this, adding or removing devices or modifying the network's configuration might be challenging. Also, it may be difficult to integrate new technologies or components that do not follow the established network architecture since wired networks are built to function with particular kinds of cabling, switches, and routers.

Installation and maintenance complexity: Setting up and maintaining a wired network can be challenging and need specific skills and experience. This may make it challenging for non-technical users to set up and administer a wired network alone and may raise the expense of contracting with outside companies to maintain networks.

Overall, there are a number of drawbacks to taking into account, even if wired Networking provides certain benefits, such as quicker and more dependable connections. They include constrained mobility, expensive infrastructure, susceptibility to physical harm, constrained scale, constrained adaptability, and difficult installation and upkeep. As a result, before deciding whether to implement wired Networking, organizations and individuals should thoroughly assess their needs and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of doing so.

Advantages of Wireless Networking:

Wi-Fi, often known as wireless Networking, has grown in popularity recently since it enables devices to connect to a network without the use of physical connections. Wireless Networking has a number of benefits, including:

More freedom of movement: Users of wireless networks can access the Internet or other network resources from any location that is within range of the wireless signal. This makes it simpler to work or communicate from various locations since devices may roam about a space without being physically connected to the network.

Reduced infrastructure costs: Wireless Networking doesn't need physical cabling or other pricey infrastructure components, unlike wired Networking. The only thing required is a wireless access point, which is affordable and quite simple to set up. As a result, wireless Networking may be a more affordable choice for individuals at home or in small enterprises.

Increased adaptability: Wireless networks may be set up to satisfy a wide range of purposes since they are very adjustable. They can accommodate a variety of gadgets, including computers, cell phones, tablets, and other internet-connected gadgets. Also, without the need for expensive infrastructure modifications, wireless networks can be readily expanded or modified to meet changing requirements.

Improved scalability: Wireless networks are easily expandable or retractable to accommodate changing demand. More access points can be added to enhance protection, and if new devices are required, more can be added to the network. As a result, organizations are better able to develop and grow without being constrained by their network infrastructure.

Enhanced productivity: Wireless Networking users can access the Internet or other network resources from any location within the wireless signal's range. Since they can get the resources they need from wherever in the workplace, users can work more productively and cooperatively.

An increase in security: Modern wireless networks are quite safe, with a variety of security mechanisms to guard against illegal access and data breaches. They include firewalls, encryption, and other security measures that can assist in keeping the network secure and protecting critical data.

Ultimately, there are several benefits to wireless Networking, including higher mobility, cheaper infrastructure costs, better flexibility, improved scalability, increased productivity, and improved security. Wireless Networking may not be suitable in all circumstances, and there are certain possible drawbacks to take into account, such as slower speeds and reduced dependability when compared to conventional Networking. As a result, before deciding whether to use wireless Networking, organizations and people should thoroughly assess their needs and weigh the advantages and downsides of doing so.

Disadvantages of wireless Networking in detail

In the current world, wireless Networking has completely changed how we interact and communicate. It does, however, have significant drawbacks that may compromise its efficiency and security. The following are some key drawbacks of wireless Networking:

Limited Range: Wireless signals' limited range might cause issues in large structures or in locations with a lot of walls and other obstructions. Range extenders and other accessories can be used to increase the range, but the network may become more complicated and expensive as a result.

Interference: Wireless transmissions can be disrupted by other wireless equipment or other electromagnetic radiation sources, like cordless phones, microwaves, and even nearby Wi-Fi networks. Due to this interference, the signal may deteriorate or disappear, which may result in decreased data rates and connection concerns.

Security: Because wireless communications are broadcast over the air and can be intercepted by unauthorized users, wireless networks are more susceptible to security vulnerabilities than wired networks. Passwords and credit card numbers are examples of sensitive data that hackers may access and use for nefarious reasons.

Bandwidth: Due to the shared nature of the airwaves, wireless networks are restricted in terms of capacity. All users will experience slower data rates as a result of the network's bandwidth being more unevenly distributed as more devices are connected to it.

Power Requirement: Wireless connections demand more power to sustain than cable connections do on devices like laptops, smartphones, and tablets. For mobile devices, this may lead to a reduction in battery life and an increase in power usage.

Cost: Since access points and network adapters must be purchased separately, setting up a wireless network can be costly. Also, especially for big networks, maintaining and improving the network can be expensive.

The conclusion is While it has become simpler for us to connect and communicate, wireless Networking still has several important drawbacks that may compromise its efficiency, security, and cost. The use of top-notch hardware and the implementation of security measures are crucial for ensuring a dependable and secure wireless network in order to prevent these problems.


Whether it be for personal or professional reasons, Networking has become an integral part of our everyday lives in today's linked society. Wired and wireless Networking are the two most popular methods, and each has pros and cons of its own.

As data is sent through actual cables rather than wireless networks, wired Networking is more dependable and secure. Wireless Networking is more susceptible to interference and security risks. It is great for high-bandwidth activities like gaming or streaming since it is quicker and more effective.

On the other hand, wireless Networking offers more adaptability and mobility since it enables users to access the network from any location that is within range. Moreover, it is more practical as it does not require wires or other physical connections.

Nevertheless, compared to wired Networking, Wireless Networking is more prone to interference and security concerns, and its range and bandwidth might be constrained.

In the end, the user's particular needs and circumstances will determine whether to employ wired or wireless Networking. Wired Networking is the ideal choice for users that value security and dependability, whereas wireless Networking may be preferred for users who value convenience and mobility.

Finally, it should be noted that both wired and wireless Networking have advantages and disadvantages. It is up to the user to consider these aspects and select the best choice for their needs. In the end, many users may find that a mix of wired and wireless Networking offers the most effective and efficient option.