Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Internet Protocol

Ipv4 vs Ipv6 Supernetting in Network Layer TCP Ports TCP vs UDP TCP TCP Congestion


Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Difference between Active and Passive FTP Difference between Transport and Network Layer Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Difference between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Difference between GUI Testing and Usability Testing Difference between Sanity Testing and Smoke Testing Differences between Distance Vector and Link State Routing Difference Between Intranet and VPN Difference between VLAN and VSAN


APIPA What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol What is Wired and Wireless Networking What is a Hardware Firewall What is PAN What is Unit Testing? Why developers should learn Unit Testing What is Data Encapsulation and Data Decapsulation in Networking What is Macro Virus and how they affect Computer Systems What is VLAN What is VSAN What is WSN Network What is Cidr in AWS What are Elementary Data Link Layer Protocols What is An Ad Hoc Network What is The Ieee 802 What is Tunneling in Computer Networks What is Twisted Pair Cable What is a Computer Network What is an ISP


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks Bit Stuffing and Bit De-Stuffing Firewall Methodologies Go Back ARQ in Computer Network Zone Based Firewall Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethernet Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Topology Advantages and Disadvantages of the Star Topology Checksum in Networking Delays in Computer Network Functions of Data Link Layer in the OSI Model Go-Back-N ARQ Protocol Guided Transmission Media in Computer Networks IGRP Routing Protocol in Computer Networks Modes Of Bluetooth Connection Protocols of a Network Layer Single Program Multiple Data Data Transfer Instructions with Examples Levels of Cache Memory Logical Addressing in Computer Network Multiple Access Protocols in Computer Network Advantages of Unguided Media Back Side Bus in Computer Network Router and Brouter in Computer Network 2 Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Data Link Layer Services Provided to the Network Layer Functions Of the Transport Layer Computer Network Security Requirements Transmission Impairments in Computer Networks Types of Modems Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Brust Errors In Computer Network Digital Signal in Computer Network Network Security Requirements Router in Computer Network Check Sum Error Detection Checksum Example Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Linear Bus Topology Magnetic Media in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Advantages and Disadvantages of Routers Advantages of Installing a Network Application Layer in Computer Networks Application Layer Protocols in Computer Networks Application of Data Communication Network Central Device in Star Topology Multiple Access Techniques in Wireless Communication Parallel Port in Computer Resource Sharing in Computer Networks Static Routing Algorithms in Computer Network TDMA Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking ATM Network Authentication in Computer Network Automatic Repeat Request Arq Characteristics of Digital Signals Cim Data Transmission Methods Components of Data Communication in Computer Network Disadvantages of Tree Topology DVRMP in Computer Network Mac Layer Functions and Protocol Pros and Cons of Extranet Protocol and its Types Resource Sharing in Computer Network Simplex Data Transmission in Computer Network Top 10 Benefits of Computer Networking Types of Computer Buses Unguided Media 4 Layers of Tcp IP Hierarchical Routing Algorithm in Computer Networks Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks

Classification of Routing Algorithms


Before going to the classification of routing algorithms, we must find out what routing is. So, routing can be defined as the process of establishing the paths that the data packets must take to get to their destination, which is the process of routing. A routing table will be established during this process and provide details on the paths that are taken by data packets. To decide the best route for an incoming data packet to travel in order to effectively reach its destination, several different routing algorithms are utilized.

The network layer's primary responsibility is to offer the optimum route, whether it may do so through the datagram service or it would be virtual circuit service. This process will be maintained by the routing protocols. The least expensive path from the source to desired end point is the one that will be the best path.

Classification of Routing Algorithms

An algorithm for routing is majorly classified into two categories they are

Classification of Routing Algorithms

Routing Algorithms are

  1. The Adaptive Routing algorithm
  2. The Non-Adaptive Routing algorithm

Let’s discuss briefly about each routing algorithm and their types further.

Adaptive Routing Algorithm

  • These algorithms are often referred to as "dynamic routing algorithms," because depending upon the network and topology, the dynamic decisions will be made.
  • When the network topology or traffic load is changed, then these algorithms will adjust their routing decisions accordingly. In reaction to changes in routing decisions, both the network's structure and traffic change.
  •  These algorithms will choose the routes based on the dynamic information such as the current topology, load, and latency, etc. The distance, the number of hops, and the estimated transit time are used as the optimization parameters.

Three more categories have been created to further separate these adaptive algorithms. They are

  1. Isolated
  2. Distributed
  3. Centralized

Isolated algorithm

In this isolated algorithm each node in this system decides how to route traffic based on the information at hand, rather than soliciting input from the other nodes. The state of a specific connection will be not known to the respective transmitting nodes. The drawback of this algorithm is that the sending packets across a clogged network might cause delays. Hot potato routing and backward learning are the two examples based on this algorithm.

Distributed Algorithm

The distributed algorithm is also one of the adaptive algorithms. In this strategy, the node will gather the data from its neighbor’s before deciding how to route the packets. If there is a change in the intervals at which it gets information and sends packets, the packet may be delayed, which is considered to be a drawback. As it determines the least costing route between the source and the destination, this distributed algorithm is sometimes referred to as a decentralized algorithm.

A node initially just has knowledge of its own directly connected linkages, and through an iterative computation process, it determines the least-cost route to the destination. A decentralized algorithm, a distance vector algorithm only knows the direction in which the packet is to be transmitted and the least expensive way, never knows the entire journey from source to destination.

Centralized Algorithm

It also goes by the name "global routing algorithm" since it uses comprehensive and worldwide network knowledge to determine the least-cost route between source and destination. The connection between the nodes and the link cost are retrieved by this approach as inputs before any calculations are made.

Non-Adaptive Algorithm

Static routing algorithm is another name for non-adaptive routing algorithm. Non-adaptive routing algorithms do not rely their routing choices on network traffic or topology. That means These are the algorithms that, once they have chosen a route, do not alter it. At network launch, the routers will store the routing information.

Further, this non adaptive algorithms are categorized into other two of the algorithms they are

  1. Flooding
  2. Random walk


Every incoming packet is sent to every outgoing link during flooding, with the exception of the one that has already been reached. Flooding has the drawback that each node may have multiple copies of the same packet. Flooding algorithm is more reliable than routing and has high traffic. The only problem in this algorithm is presence of duplicate packets.

Random walk

During random walks, a packet from a node is randomly transmitted to one of its neighbors. Sending packets onto the link that has the fewest pending connections is the typical way to apply this very reliable strategy. Random walks have the benefit of making excellent use of other routes.