Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Model

OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography

Misc

Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking? Cache Server What Is WSN Network? Check Sum Error Detection Linear Bus Topology Functions of the Transport Layer Infrared Transmission in Computer Networks Digital Signal in Computer Network Digital Data Transmission in Computer Networks Define Checksum with Example Computer Network Security Requirements Brust Errors in Computer Network Back Side Bus (BSB) 2-Dimension Parity Check in Computer Network Router and Brouter Microwave Transmission in Computer Networks Magnetic Media in Computer Network A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol CDMA-Near-Far Problem Reference Models in Computer Networks Uni-cast, Broadcast, and Multicast in Computer Networks Uses Of Bridges in Computer Networks What are Gateways in Computer Network?

Two Port Network in Computer Networks

A Two Port Network is a four-terminal electric network or circuit with 2 terminals on both sides, each connecting with more circuits or devices. Two terminals together make a port, one port is used as an input port from which current is supplied, and the other port is used as an output port which emerges the same energy. The first is called port1, and the second port is called port2.

Ports -

1. One port network 

It is an electric network that contains two terminals to form a port, in which current enters from one terminal and leaves through another terminal. Examples of one-port networks can be Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors. Each of them works on 2 terminals.

Two Port Network

The above figure is a one-port network circuit in which 1 and 1' represents a port. It has one port only as one port network has two terminals, i.e., one port.

2. Two port Network 

It is the same as one port network, but contains a pair of two terminal electrical networks through which current is passed from one terminal and leaves from another end or terminal of each port.

Two Port Network

The above figure depicts two port networks, which contain 4 terminals, one pair of terminals, 1 & 1’ represents one port known as port1, and the other pair of terminals, 2 & 2', represents another known port as port2.

The circuits in two port networks consist of four variables, namely- V1, V2, I1, and I2, as shown in the above figure, where two variables are chosen as independent variables and the other two as dependent variables.

V1  -  represents the voltage across port1

I1 -  shows current into port 1

v2 - represents the voltage across port2

I2 - shows current into port 2

There are 6 possible equations representing a dependent variable in terms of independent variables. The coefficients of independent variables are called parameters.

Two Port Network Parameters

There are certain parameters of two port network called two port network parameters or two port parameters. There are several types of two port network parameters. The list below is some of the calculative parameters of two port network: 

  • Z parameters
  • Y parameters
  • T parameters
  • T’ parameters
  • h parameters
  • g parameters
  • S  parameters

Z parameters

Z parameters are also known as Impedance parameters because they are simply the ratio between voltage and current. There are 2 equations to solve the Z parameter by considering the variables V1 and V2 as dependent variables and I1 & I2 as independent variables.

Two Port Network

Where,

Two Port Network

The unit or dimension of the Z perimeter is Ohm(O). Z parameters are also called open-circuit impedance parameters because parameters can be solved by doing open circuit operations on the ports. By doing an open circuit of port1 and port2, user can calculate Z parameters, Z11 & Z21 and Z22 & Z12 respectively.

Y parameters

Y parameters are also known as admittance parameters because they are the ratio between current and voltage. There are 2 equations to solve the Y parameter by considering the variables V1 and V2 as independent variables, and I1 & I2 as dependent variables. Parameters of Y are the coefficients of independent variables that are V1 and V2.

Two Port Network

The Y parameters are

Two Port Network

The measuring unit of Y parameters is mho.

These are also known as short-circuit admittance parameters because Y parameters can be solved with the help of short circuit of the ports. By doing a short circuit of port2 and port1, user can calculate Y parameters, Y11 & Y21 and Y22 & Y12 respectively.

T parameters

T parameters are mostly known as ABCD parameters or Transmission parameters. There are 2 equations to solve the T parameter by considering the variables V1 and I1 as dependent variables and V2 & I2 as independent variables. The T Parameters are the coefficients of  V2 and -I2.

Two Port Network

The T parameters are

Two Port Network

 A and D parameters do not have any measuring units as both of those are dimension less. The measuring units of parameters B and C are ohm and mho respectively.

A and C parameters can be calculated by doing an open circuit of port 2. Similarly, B and D parameters can be calculated using an open circuit of port 2.

T ’ parameters

T’ parameters or A’B’C’D’ parameters are also known as inverse transmission parameters. There are 2 equations to solve the T parameter by considering the variables V2 and I2 as dependent variables, and V1 & I1 as independent variables. A’B’C’D’, the coefficients of  V1 and -I1 are the T parameters

Two Port Network

The T’ parameters are

Two Port Network

A’ and D’ parameters do not have any measuring units because both of those are dimension less. The other parameters B’ and C', have units that are Ohm and Mho, respectively.

By doing open circuit of port 1, the parameters, A’ and C’ can be calculated. With same way, the other two parameters, B' and D', can be calculated.

h-parameters

These parameters are also known as hybrid parameters. This parameters can be used in transistor modeling circuits or networks.

 There are 2 equations to solve the h parameter by considering the variables V1 and I2 as dependent variables and I1 & V2 as independent variables. Coefficients of I1 and V2 are the h parameters.

Two Port Network

The h parameters are

Two Port Network

h12 and h21 parameters do not have any measuring units because both of those are dimension less. The other parameters, h11 and h22, have units that are Ohm and Mho, respectively.

The parameters h11 and h21 can be calculated using an open circuit of port 2. Similarly, the other two parameters, h12 and h22, can be calculated using a short circuit of port1.

g-parameters

These are also known as inverse hybrid parameters. There are 2 equations to solve the g parameter by considering the variables I1 and V2 as dependent variables and V1 & I2 as independent variables. The coefficients, V1 and I2 are the parameters of g.

Two Port Network

The g parameters are

Two Port Network

 g12 and g21 parameters do not have any measuring units because both of those are dimension less. The other parameters, g11 and g22, have mho and ohm units, respectively.

g-parameters can be calculated by doing open circuit of port2 of the parameters g11 and g21. And by doing short circuit of port1 of, the other two parameters, g12 and g22.

S-parameters

S-parameters are also called scattering parameters. It is different form all other ports and parameters. All other parameters are calculated on voltage and current but are based on the incident and reflected waves. There are 2 equations to solve the g parameter by where the ak{\displaystyle \scriptstyle a_{k}}a are the incident waves and the bk{\displaystyle \scriptstyle b_{k}} are the reflected waves at port k. The coefficients of variables a and b are called s-parameters.

Two Port Network

The s-parameters are

Two Port Network

Where 2 port S depicts the following description:

S11 shows the input reflection of port voltage.

S12 shows the reverse of voltage gain.

S22 is the forward voltage gain.

S22,{\displaystyle S_{22}\,} represents the output  reflection of port voltage.