Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Data link layer in OSI model

This article will help you in getting a good understanding of the topic called the Data link layer in the OSI model.

It is the second bottom most layer in the OSI model. It is the most complicated layer among all layers in the OSI model and it involves many complex functioning procedures and methodologies.

The data link layer works between two hosts which are having a direct connection. Here the direct connection is either point-to-point or broadcast type. The data link consists of two sub-layers which are given below:

  1. Logical link control
  2. Media access control

a) Logical Link Control: This sub-layer deals with various aspects like protocols, flow, and error control.

b) Media Access control: This sub-layer deals with the original control of media.

The main purpose of the data link layer is to make sure that transferred information is error-free. From the network layer, the data link layer gets information in the form of packets and divides those packets into frames. These frames are bit-by-bit transferred to the physical layer from the data link layer. Functions of the data link layer are error control, flow control, addressing, frame synchronization, access control, providing service to the network layer, and reliable delivery.

The packets which are sent by the network layer are broken down into frames based on the Network Interface CARD(NIC) and the frame size. This layer stores or preserves the MAC address of the sender and receiver in the header.

MAC (Media Access Control) address is a 12-digit address that is used to uniquely identify a network device in the network.

For example:
is having 6 octets of which the first 3 represent the OUI and the next three octets represent the NIC).

The MAC address of the receiver can be found or identified by using Address Resolution Protocol(ARP) request onto the wire for asking the question “ whose IP address is this?”. The host will be responding to this question by sending the MAC address.

Functionality of Data Link Layer

  • Error control: The main functionality of  data link layer in the OSI model is error control. This layer needs to identify errors and correct them by using techniques. Due to several reasons, data can be corrupted. To make the data error-free, the data link layer uses techniques like error detection and correction. Error detection checks whether the error occurred or not, and error corrections find out the exact number of corrupted bits and their location.
  • Flow control: If the speed of the sender is slower than the receiver, overflow occurs, and some of the frames will be lost in this process. The data link layer allows the sender and receiver to transfer data simultaneously such that no overflow will occur in the transfer of data. There are 2 types of flow control processes they are \
    • Stop and wait for flow control
    • Sliding window

a. Stop and wait for flow control: It pushes the sender after sending the data to stop and wait by the receiver.

b. Sliding Window: It is the process in which both the sender and receiver decide the number of frames after which the acknowledgment should be given. This process consumes less time as it uses few resources.

  • Addressing: The data link layer binds the source and destination physical addresses (MAC addresses) at the header of each frame to verify delivery. A physical address is always a unique address that is given to the system at the time of manufacturing, and it will not be changed.
  • Framing: The data link layer receives the packet from the network layer and divides that packet into frames, adding some bits to the header and also at the end of the frame, after which it will be transferred to the physical layer. Framing is the way of connecting two devices and also sending bit by bit meaningful data to the receiver.
  • Providing service to the network layer: It provides an interface to the network layer for transferring the data packets. Acknowledged connectionless services, unacknowledged connectionless services, and acknowledged connection-oriented services are the various services which are provided by the data link layer.

This is all about the Data link layer of the OSI model. Hope you understood this topic.