Computer Network Tutorial

Introduction of Computer Network Types of Computer Network Network Topology Computer Networking Architecture Transmission Modes (Data Flow) Basic Networking Devices Integrate Services Digital Network (ISDN)


OSI Model TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Transmission Media Switching

Data Link Layer

Error detection and Error correction Data Link Control Multiple Access Aloha

Network Layer

Network Layer - Logical Address Address Mapping Unicast Routing Protocol

Transport Layer

Process to Process Delivery User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Layer and Presentation Layer

Application Layer

Domain Name System Application Protocol E-mail Cryptography


Classes of Routing Protocols Classification of Routing Algorithms Controlled Access Protocols in Computer Networks Differences between IPv4 and IPv6 Fixed and Flooding Routing Algorithms Advantages and Disadvantages of Fibre Optics Cable APIPA Difference between Active and Passive FTP Fiber Optics and its Types Method of Joining and Fusion of Fiber Optic Cable Define Framing in Computer Network Disadvantages of Computer Network Mesh Topology Diagram in Computer Network Ring Topology in Computer Network Star Topology in Computer Networks 4G Mobile Communication Technology Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Advantages and Disadvantages of MAN Advantages and Disadvantages of WAN Application Layer in OSI Model Cyclic Redundancy Check Example Data link layer in OSI model Difference between Transport and Network Layer Hamming Code Example Network Layer in OSI Model Session Layer in OSI Model Transport Layer in OSI Model Two Port Network in Computer Networks Uses of Computer Networks What is Computer Network What is Framing in a Computer Network Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Difference between Star Topology and Bus Topology Subnetting in Computer Network Subnetting Questions and Answers What is Bus Topology What is Network Topology and Types in Computer Networks Access Control in Networking Basic Characteristics of Computer Network Benefits of SOCKS5 Proxy in Computer Networks Computer Network viva Questions Difference between BOOTP and RARP Difference Between Network Topologies and Network Protocols Difference between NFC and RFID Difference Between Point-to-Point Link and star Topology Network Differences Between MSS and MTU Differences Between Trunk Port and Access Port Different Modes of Communication in Computer Networks MIME Protocol in Computer Networks Modes of Communication in Computer Networks Network Attack in Computer Network Port Address in Networking Simplest Protocol in Computer Network Sliding Window Protocol in Computer Network Stop And Wait Protocol in Computer Networks TCP 3-Way Handshake Process in Computer Networks What is a Proxy Server What is APPN What is ICMP Protocol What is Point-to-Point Protocol What is Port Address in Networking What is the HDLC Protocol What is VRRP Protocol Difference Between Analog and Digital Signals Difference Between Hub and Repeater Difference between Repeater and Switch Difference Between Transparent Bridge and Source Routing Bridge Source Routing Bridge in Computer Networks Transparent Bridge in Computer Networks Transport Protocol in Computer Networks Types of CSMA in Computer Networks What is Wired and Wireless Networking Network Security in Computer Network Disadvantages of Extranet Difference Between TELNET and FTP Define Protocol in Computer Networks Guided Transmission Media in Computer Network What is a Gateway in a Computer Network IGMP in Computer Networks LAN Protocols in Computer Networks MAN Meaning in Computer Modulation Techniques in Computer Networks Switching in DCN TCP/IP Applications What is IGMP? What is Modem in Networking What is Non-Persistent CSMA Difference between Cell Splitting and Cell Sectoring Forouzen Computer Network Open Loop and Closed Loop Congestion Control Types of Cluster Computing WAP-Wireless Access Point What are the elements of the Transport Protocol Difference between Gateway and Switch Flow Control in Data Link Layer Body Area Network Flooding in Computer Network Token Ring in Computer Networks VoIP in Computer Networks What is Infrared Transmission Congestion Control Techniques Forward Error Correction (FEC) Switching Techniques What is Telnet in Computer Network What are the Types of IPv4 Addresses IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) IEEE 802.15.4 Technology What is HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)? What is SMS Hubbing in Telecom? Circuit Switching in Computer Networks Communication Satellites in Computer Networks Features of HTTP Protocol IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol) Internet Services How to Set up a Wireless Router Internetwork Routing in Computer Networks Distributed Computing System Features of GSM The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol What is IEEE 802.3? What are Hubs and Switches in Computer Networks? What is Modem in a Computer Network? What is multicasting in Computer Networks? GSM -The Mobile Station What is Network Server? Slotted Aloha in Computer Network What is Ethernet in Computer Networks What is Arpanet? Radio Access Network (RAN) TCP 3-Way Handshake Process PING SWEEP (ICMP SWEEP) Print Server Private IP Address Security Services in Computer Networks Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CSMA with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) What is Gateway in Computer Network? Advantages of Networking Data Link Layer Design Issues DHCP in Computer Networks Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) What is Switch Hub? Telnet Full form in Networking Multimedia Systems Quality of Service in Computer Networks What is Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)? What is Circuit Switching What is Duplex Network? What is Web Protocol Network LAN Technologies Classes in Computer Network Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Wireless Internet Service Providers(Wisps) What is Handshaking?

Differences between IPv4 and IPv6


In this tutorial, we will discuss the basic differences between IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.

Definition of Internet Protocols

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn's initial Transmission Control Program had a connectionless datagram service called Internet Protocol. It was supplemented with a connection-oriented service that served as the foundation for the TCP. TCP is the most common internet protocol which stands for Transmission Control Protocol. TCP or IP is, consequently, a common abbreviation for the Internet protocol suite.

For transporting the datagrams across all network borders, the Internet Protocol is the Internet protocol suite's network layer communications protocol that will be used. Its routing capability makes the internetworking possible and, in essence, it will create the Internet. Your Internet Protocol address serves as your digital ID. It will also serve as your computer's network address, letting the Internet know where to deliver emails, files, etc. to you.

Every packet header’s has internet protocol address in which the Internet Protocol is entirely responsible for the migration of packets to the destination host. For this reason, the packet structures used to encapsulate the data being communicated are specified by the Internet protocol. This also provides the address techniques for labelling datagrams with the description of source and also destination.


The internet protocol has two widely used iterations or versions. namely IPv4 and IPv6.The earliest and most used Internet protocol is known as IPv4. Internet Protocol Version 6, or IPv6, replaced the previous version, IPv4, and IPv6 has seen an increase in use on the public Internet.

IPv4: What is it?

IP is the full form of Internet Protocol and v is the version of the protocol. IPv4 addresses are decimal representations of 32-bit integers. An illustration of an IPv4 address is This internet protocol version 4 has three different parts. They are

  1. Network part
  2. Host part
  3. Subnet number

Network part

The main job of this network part is that the network portion will identify the unique variations that are assigned to the network. The network component also specifies the network's allocated category.

Host part

The network portion of each host on the network is the same, but the host portion must differ for each host. The computer on your network is identified by the host component in a very unique way. Each host will be given access to this portion of the IPv4 address respectively.

Subnet number

This subnet number is also a IPv4 component that is optional. Local networks that are with a large number of hosts are separated into subnets and given a specific subnet number to each subnet.

IPv4 Characteristics

  • An IPv4 address might have been 32 bits long. There are twelve header fields, and each one is twenty characters long.
  • The ability to fragment packets is facilitated by routers and hosts.
  • Networks should be created manually or via DHCP. The routed daemon could support the routing protocol RIP.
  • The bits of an IPv4 address are separated by dots and might be a number. It has addresses in the Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast formats. Virtual length subnet mask is well supported in this version.

Benefits of IPv4

  • The IPV4 network allotment is substantial and currently contains about 75000 useful routers. This is a paradigm of communication that offers both cost-effective and high-quality knowledge transmission.
  • Encoding with IPV4 addresses that have been redefined is error-free. Routing is considerably more scalable and cost-effective since addressing is performed collectively more successfully. Encryption can ensure security and privacy thanks to IPv4 security.

IPv6: What is it?

A network layer protocol called IPv6, or also called as Internet Protocol Version 6, enables the communication over networks. Due to the rapidly increasing number of internet users worldwide, IPv4 was intended to be replaced by IPv6 when it was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in December 1998.

There are eight groups of four hexadecimal digits in an IPv6 address. A sample IPv6 address is shown below:


IPv6 Address Types

Let's look at the various forms of IPv6 addresses now that we are aware of what they are.

  • addressed via unicast It designates a particular node on a network and frequently alludes to a single transmitter or recipient.
  • Addresses for multicast It can only be used as a datagram's destination and represents a collection of IP devices.
  • Addresses for Anycast It is allocated to a group of interfaces, most of which are connected to various nodes.

Benefits of IPv6

  • The main advantage of this version is Dependability and Route effectiveness. Most notably, it is the last resort for the Global-expanding network's nodes.
  • This version has the Faster Speeds, that means Multicast is supported by IPv6 as Multicast is opposed to broadcast in IPv4.
  • This function enables simultaneous transmission of packet flows with high bandwidth requirements, such as multimedia streams.
  • This internet protocol version 6 provides a greater Security, that means IPv6 includes the internet protocol security, which comes with the data integrity and also high secrecy.

The extensive use of IPv4 at the moment makes the conversion to IPv6 unfavourable in that it will take more time to accomplish. And Communication is not possible between IPv4 and IPv6 devices directly. To do it, they require an intermediary technology. The above-mentioned communication and conversion problems are considered to be the drawbacks of internet protocol version6.