C Tutorial

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C vs Java

Difference between C and Java

C programming and Java programming are two of the earliest programming languages. C programming follows a procedural approach whereas Java programming follows an object-oriented approach. Java programming is a part of C and C++ programming. In this article, the two languages are compared based on their various features.

What is C Programming?

  • Dennis Ritchie developed C programming in the year 1972 at the Bell Labs.
  • Since it supports functionalities of high-level and low-level languages, it can be called a middle-level language.
  • It follows a procedural programming model. The smallest unit of a C program is called a function.
  • C programming gives importance to the program flow that’s why it follows a top-down approach.

C programming Example

The following program demonstrates how to write a basic C program.


#include <stdio.h>

void main()
    printf("Hello World");


Hello World

In the above C code, a printf() function is used to display a statement on the console.

What is Java Programming?

  • Java is an object-oriented programming language, released by Sun Microsystems in the year 1995.
  • Java programming is one of the most preferred programming languages due to its many features. It is platform-independent. It does not support explicit pointers. It makes Java programs more secure.
  • One must install JDK before executing the Java program. The Java code is first compiled into a byte code. And the byte code is then interpreted. The byte code can be executed on any other platform which has Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed on it. It makes the Java programs portable.
  • There are three versions of Java.
    1. Java EE (Enterprise Edition)
    2. Java SE (Standard Edition)
    3. Java ME (Micro Edition)   

Java program Example

The following program demonstrates how to write a basic Java program.


/* Declaration of Class */
class Sample
    /* Driver Code */
    public static void main(String ar[])
      /* Print statement */
      System.out.println("Hello World");  


Hello World

The above Java program declares a class Sample. The System.out.println() method displays the output on the output window.

C vs Java

Sr. No.C ProgrammingJava Programming
1.C programming follows the procedural programming approach.Java programming follows an object-oriented programming approach.
2.In C, memory management is done using functions like malloc and free.In Java programming, memory management is handled by the garbage collector.
3.C language offers the functionality of pointers.Java doesn’t have pointers.
4.In C the smallest program unit is a function.In Java, the smallest program unit is a class and objects.
5.It is compiled language.It is an interpreted language.
6.C programs has a top-down approach.Java programs has a bottom-up approach.
7.C programs are not portable because it is platform dependent language.Java programs are portable because it is platform-independent language.
8.C programs don’t support threads.Java programs support threads.
9.C doesn’t support overloading functionality.Method overloading is possible in Java.
10.C programs support both call by value and call by reference.Java program only supports call by value.
11.Variable declaration is done at the start of the block.Java variables are declared anywhere in the program.
12.In C programs, constant variables are declared using const or #define.In Java programs, constant variables are declared using the final keyword.
13.C programs have limited security.Java provides built-in security to the application programs.
14.C supports go-to statements.Java doesn’t support go-to statements.
15.Default data members are public in C programs.Default data variables or methods are private in Java programs.
16.C programming support preprocessors.Java doesn’t have preprocessors.
17.C programming doesn’t have any feature to handle exceptions that occurred during program execution.Java programming provides features of exception handling.

Which is better C or Java?

Both C and Java programming are different programming languages. Currently, Java programming is more popular than the C language because of its large variety of features. Java can be used to develop web-application, mobile applications or windows-based applications.

But C programming is one of the oldest programming languages. As it is a middle-level language, microcontrollers or even operating systems are developed using this language.

Both these languages are significant in their own ways. We can compare them with but cannot replace them with each other.

In this article, we have discussed C and Java programming languages, the difference between the two languages.