C Tutorial

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C Functions

User Defined Functions in C Built-in functions in C Types of Function in C Inbuilt Functions in C Static() Function in C pow() function in C Assert() Function fgets() function Ftell() Function getc() function getch() function gets() function Pi() Function Write() function abs() function in C Ferror() in c fopen() function in C Beep() function in C Cbrt() function in C Hook() function in C Isalnum() function in C Simple hash() function in C strcat() Function in C C printf() and Scanf() Use of free() function in C Floor() Function in C Free() Function in C Unformatted input() and output() function in C tolower() Function in C fprintf() and fscanf() in C Sprintf() in C fork() in C isupper() in C Perror() in C Strcmp() Function in C String Functions in C Strrev() function in C exit() and return in C execlp() function in C realloc() in C strftime() function in C Strsep() function in C strstr() function in C Ceil() function in C Malloc() function in C Realloc() function in C Fseek() Function in C Pure Virtual Function in C Ceil() and Floor() in C putchar() in C kbhit() function in C bzero() Function in C atan2() Function in C atof() Function in C getopt() Function in C seof() Function in C getw() and putw() Function in C strdup() Function in C Usleep() function in C getpid() and getppid() function in C strcasecmp() function in C gotoxy() function in C strupr() function in C Free Function in C Language frewind() Function in C exit() function in C

C Programs

infix To Postfix Program in C Armstrong program in C using function Factorial Program in C using For Loop Factorial Program in C Using While Loop Prime Number Program in C using for Loop C program to find factorial of a number using Recursion Fibonacci series program in C using Recursion C Program to find the Roots of a Quadratic Equation C Program Swap Numbers in cyclic order Using Call by Reference C Program to Find Largest Number Using Dynamic Memory Allocation C Program to Find the Largest Number using Ternary Operator C/C++ Program to Find the Size of int, float, double and char Multiplication table program in C using For loop C Program for Mean and Median of an Unsorted Array C program that does not Suspend when Ctrl+Z is Pressed Write a program that produces different results in C and C++ SJF Scheduling Program in C Union Program in C GCD program in C Bit Stuffing Program in C Arithmetic Progression Program in C Binomial Coefficient Program in C C Program to find the size of a File GCD program of two numbers in C C Program for Extended Euclidean algorithms C Program of Fencing the Ground Compound interest Program in C Distance Vector Routing Protocol Program in c DSA Program in C Simple Programs in C Language Assignment Operator Program in C Caesar Cipher Program in C CRC Program in C Deadlock Detection Program in C C Program to find ASCII value of a character 1 2 3 4 Series Program in C C Program for Polynomial Addition C Program to Count the Number of Vowels in a String Complex C Programs Addition Program in C Calculator Program in C C Program to Read and Print an Employee's Detail Using Structure C Program to Find Area and Perimeter of Circle C Program to Check Whether a Given Number is Even or Odd C Program to Make a Simple Calculator Using Switch Case Insertion Sort Program in C Leap Year Program in C Simple interest Program in C Patterm Program in C C Program to Print Table from 1 to 10 Power of 2 Program in C Program to Swap two numbers using Pointers in C Stack program in C C Program For String Concatenation C Program to Calculate Electricity Bill C Program to Convert Decimal to Binary without using Array C Program to Convert Decimal to Hexadecimal C Program to Draw a Circle C Program for Customer Billing System C Program to Reverse a Linked List C Program to Store Inventory System using Structures C Program to Swap Two Numbers Using Call by Reference C Program Using Segmentation Fault C Program Using Structures Employee Details C Program For Matrix Multiplication C Program to Print a Matrix C Program Using Recursion C Program For Sine Series C Program to Find the Square Root Of a Number C Program For Union Of Sets C Program to Access The Array Elements Using Pointers C Program to Add Two integers C Program to Find Gcd Of Two Numbers C Program to Swap 2 Numbers Marksheet Program in C First and Follow Programs in C Checksum Program in C Alphabet Pattern Programs in C Bellman Ford Algorithm Program in C Fcfs Program in C C Program to Calculate Compound Interest C Program to Calculate Percentage C Program to Find Sum Of Array Elements C Program to Find The Rank Of a Matrix C Program to Optimal Page Replacement Algorithm C Program to Swap Two Numbers Without Using a Third Variable Binary Tree Program in C Client Server Program in C Program to Check Balanced Parenthesis in C ATM Program in C C Program to Check Student is Pass or Fail C Program to Delete An Element in An Array C Program to Find Factors of a Number C Program to Generate the Fibonacci Triangle Program For Average of 5 Numbers in C Program to Convert Decimal to Hexadecimal in C Binomial Heap Program in C C Program to Find the Largest Element in An Array C Program to Search An Element in An Array C Program to Sort An Array in Descending Order Strssen Matrix Multiplication Program in C Vigenere Cipher Program in C C Program For the Second Smallest and Second Largest Number in the Series of Array Leaky Bucket Algorithm Program in C

C Loops

Loop Statement in C Do-While Loop in C For Loop in C While-Loop in C Entry Control Loop in C Exit control loop in C infinite loop in C Nested loop in C For loop in C Programming

C Examples

Do WHILE LOOP in C Programming Examples For Loop in C Programming Examples While Loop in C programming examples Nested Loops in C Programming Examples Types of Tokens in C with Examples Merge and Merge sort with example in C Example of Iteration in C FIFO Example in the C Language Explain Recursion with example in C


What are linker and loader in C What is Linked List in C What is a buffer in C What is required in each C Program What is the main in C Why C is a Middle Level Language Why does sizeof(x++) not increment x in C What is String Comparison in C What is a Size of Pointer in C What is increment and Decrement Operator in C What are the differences between C and Embedded C What is Constant in C What is Stack in C What is Data Structure in C Can We Learn Python Without C Can We Learn Java Without Learning C What is Flag in C What is Lvalue in C Which Loop is Faster in C Language What is the Producer Consumer Problem in C What is The Garbage Value in C What is The Function Prototype in C What is FEOF in C

How To

How to Avoid Structure Padding in C How to use atoi() function in C How to use floor() function in C How to use sine() function in C How to use Typedef Struct in C How to delete a file in C How to move a text in C How to create a binary file in C How to convert a number to words in C How to convert a string to hexadecimal in C How to Calculate Time Complexity in C How to include graphics.h in C How to measure time taken by a function in C How to return a Pointer from a Function in C How to Find Square Free Numbers in C How to Declare Boolean in C How to Declare Character in C How to Round up a number in C How to use strlen() in C How to find string length in C using strlen() function How to take input in string in C How to Use Threads in C How to Place Horizontal Tab Character in C How to Reverse a Number in C How to Print Double Quotes in C How to Create Your Own Header Files in C How to Store an Integer in a Char Array in C How can we Initialize an Array in C


Difference between while and do-while loop in C Difference between rand() and srand() function in C Difference between while and for loop in C Difference between Array and List in C Difference between If and Switch Statement in C Difference between If Else and Nested If Else in C Difference between Pre-increment and Post-increment in C Difference between Scope and Lifetime in C Difference between Argument and Parameter in C Difference between char s[] and char *s in C Difference between Static and Dynamic Memory Allocation in C Difference between parameter and arguments in C Runtime Vs Compile Time in C Const Vs Volatile in C C Vs Java C vs Java Strings Difference Between Float and Double in C Difference Between Malloc and Calloc in C Fseek vs Rewind Function in C Difference between Structure And Union in C With Example Difference between C and Matlab Difference between a While Loop and a For Loop in C Difference between Constants and Variables in C Difference between printf and scanf in C Difference between While Loop and Do While Loop in C

C Interview Questions

Interview Questions on Pointers in C


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Simple hash() function in C


In this context, we briefly discuss HASH FUNCTION, HASHING or HASH TABLE in C. It is a function used to map data and mapped arbitrary sizes to the fixed-size values.

The most crucial topic in hashing is “SEARCHING”, which determines the time complexity. It reduce time complexity. The data is stored in the array format in the

Simple hash function in C

hash table. It is a faster technique and also very useful. This table held the data in an associative manner.

In this above diagram, we have seen that the actual data is to be stored in the hash key. The key value goes to the hash function. The hash function moved towards the hash value.

The hash value stored in the hash table.

By this diagram we can see that how hash function is works in C language.

What is Hash Function?

In the hash function, H accepted a variable-length block of input known as M and produced the fixed size of the hash value. That value is represented as:                                               

 h = H (M)

The Hash function uses the operation of the constant time. The function is converted a significant number into a small integer form. This function is to store values. It is also used to recover the values from the hash table. This is also used as the address in the hash table.

What are the 3 main properties of the HASH FUNCTION ?

There are three main properties of the secure hash function: Pre-image resistance, Second pre-image resistance, and collision resistance.

What is meant by the good hash function in C ?

A hash function should have the following properties. This properties is determine whether the function is good or bad. The properties are :

  1. In this function, Keys are should be uniformly distributed.
  2. The efficiency of this function should be computable.

Why we use the hash function?

The Hash function uses to store the values. It reduces values from a database because it helps accelerate the process.

Types of hash function in C

The types of hash function in C language are :

  1. Division Method
  2. Mid Square Method
  3. Digit Folding Method
  4. Multiplication Method

Now we are briefly discuss in these method :

1.Division Method :  This method is the most accessible and straightforward method to generate the hash value. The hash function depends upon the reminder of a division; if the hash function divides the value X by M, then the remainder is obtained.

Formula of direct method:

h (x) = x mod M


x is the value of key

M is the size of the hash table

M is the prime number because it is decided that the keys value are uniformly distributed.

Example :

If the value,
x = 1234
M = 4
h (1234) = 1234 mod 4

Advantage :

  • This method is a speedy operation.
  • This method requires only a single division operation and is suitable for the value M.

Disadvantage :

  • We need to take extra care in choosing the value M.
  • The division method leads to poor performance.

2. Mid Square Method : In the mid-square method, the middle part of the square element takes as the index. It is a perfect and valuable hashing method. In this method, two steps require to compare the hash value. The steps are:

Square the value of the key. Which means X2. Exact the middle r digit as the hash value. The value of the r is to be decided based on the size of the table value.

Formula :

h (X) = h (X * X)

here , X is the key value .

Example :

X = 50
X * X = 50 * 50
h (X) = h (X * X)
h (50) = 50
\The hash value is 6

Advantage :

  • In this method, the result is not dominated by the distribution of the top or bottom digit of the main key value.
  • The performance is good in this method.

Disadvantage :

  • In this method, if the size of the key is significant, then its square will double the number of digits.
  • In the mod square method, there is a collision present.

3. Digit Folding Method : The digit folding method is done in two steps:

In this method, the value of key or critical X divides into several parts that are X1, X2, X3, X4………Xn.

Each part contains the same number of digits except the last part because it contains less number of digits than the other part. Then, each part is added, and the hash value we find by ignoring the last carry.

Formula :

X = the key value
X = X1 ,X2, X3, X4 ……… Xn
Sum = X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 + ……… + Xn
h(X) = Sum


Sum is find by adding the parts of key X.

Example :

X = 170316
X1 = 17 ,X2 = 03, X3 = 16
Sum = X1 + X2 + X3
h (X) = 36

4. Multiplication Method : The multiplication method is done by following steps At first, choose a value Y. The value of Y is 0<Y<1.

The key value is X.

Multiply X with Y and extract the functional part from XY.

Then multiply the value of XY with the value of hash table M. The hash value finds by taking the resulting floor in step (iii).

Formula :

h (X) = floor (M(XY mod 1 ))


  • X is the Key value
  • K is the choose value or constant value
  • M is the size or value of the hash table

Example :

X = 1256
Y = 0.523
M = 10
h (1256) = floor (10(1256 * 0.523 mod 1))
= floor (10(656.888 mod 1))
= floor (10(0.888))
= floor (8.88)
= 8

Advantage: The multiplication method is easy to use. This method can work at any value between 0 to 1. The user can easily understand this method.

Disadvantage: The multiplication method depends on the size of the table value. The table value should be in the power of the two, which means table value = 2n [n = 1, 2, 3 …..].Then the whole process of computing the index using hashing value is too fast.

Collision resolution Technique : Collision is storage or condition when two or more data items arrive in the exact location. The collision resolution techniques are mainly two types.

 The techniques are :

  1. Chaining - This is also known as Open hashing.
  2. Open addressing – This is also known as Close hashing.

We want to make an external chain. This technique is also known as open hashing because the provided space, and open space, are used in this hashing. This method gives some chains or boxes for the record that needs two-element entries.

Example – 24, 19, 32, 44, 51 with the hash table size 6

Hash (key) = 24 % 6 = 0

Hash (key) = 19 % 6 = 1

Hash (key) = 32 % 6 = 2

Hash (key) = 44 % 6 = 2

Hash (key) = 51 % 6 = 3


Table no two is already packed with the data 32; that’s why a chain connects 44 in table 2. This is the method of chaining.

Open Addressing : Open addressing means the provided space in the hash table utilizes first. This is also known as closed hashing. Open addressing is divided into three parts – (i) Linear Probing, (ii) Quadratic Probing, and (iii) Double Hashing.

1.Linear Probing –

The Linear Probing method is another technique for collision resolution. In this method, we don’t space the 2 data in one table. By this method, we placed the second data in the following empty table or the space. But if no open space is founded, then it leads to clustering. Then this problem is also known as the clustering problem.

Example - 24, 19, 32, 44 with the hash table size 6

Hash (key) = 24 % 6 = 0

Hash (key) = 19 % 6 = 1

Hash (key) = 32 % 6 = 2

Hash (key) = 44 % 6 = 2


In this diagram, the data 32 and 44 are wanted to place in table no 2, but this method doesn’t allow it. So 32 set table no 2 and 44 sets next empty space, i.e. table no 3.

2.Quadratic Probing –

This method is used to solve the problem which is arrived at by linear probing. The Quadratic Probing method resolves the problem of clustering. The hash function with the hash key is calculated as :

hash (key) = (hash (key) +x*x ) % (size of the hash table)

[x = 1, 2, 3, 4,…….]

Example –24, 19, 32, 44 with the hash table size 6

Hash (key) = 24 % 6 = 0

Hash (key) = 19 % 6 = 1

Hash (key) = 32 % 6 = 2

Hash (key) = 44 % 6 = 2


This diagram shows that 24, 19 and 32 are easily placed in the hash table. But in the case of 44, it has the same hash key value as 32. So as per this method, we calculate the Hash key value of 44.

hash (44) = (44+ (1*1)) % 6 = 3

 so the hash key value of 44 is 3. Now we placed 44 in index number 3.

Double Hashing –

Double means two hash functions we can use here. Using two hash functions, we can resolve the collision problem. Two steps do this method : Calculated just using a simple division method. This must not be equal to zero, and entries must be probed.                      

Hash (key)1 = Key % size of the hash table

Hash (key)2 = p – (key mod p) [p is Prime Number  < size of the hash table]

Example – 20, 34, 45, 70 with table size 11

Hash (key) = 20 % 11 = 9

Hash (key) = 34 % 11 = 1

Hash (key) = 45 % 11 = 1

Hash (key) = 70 % 11 = 4


R1(k) = k mod 11

R2(k) = 8 – ( k mod 8 )

In this diagram , the element 45 can be placed using hash 2(key) = 8 – (45 % 8) = 3

(R1(k) + R2(k)) mod 11

= 1 + 1*3  = 4

So, we place the element 45 in table number 4. Now the hash key value of 70 is 4 . But 45 is already stored in to table number 4 . The element 70 can be placed using hash2(key) = 8 – (70 % 8) = 2

 (R1(k) + R2(k)) mod 11

= 4 + 2 = 6

So, we place the element 70 in table number 6.     

Application of HASH FUNCTION

The hash function is used in programming languages like C, C++, Python, and Java script to implement objects. It is also used in disk-based data structure and database indexing. Hash is used in cryptography and password verification.

Advantage of HASH FUNCTION

The Hash function is more efficient and provides better synchronization than the data structure. It gives a time constant for searching, deletion, and insertion.

Disadvantage of HASH FUNCTION

Main disadvantage of the hash function is a collision. The Hash function also does not allow the null values.


Hashing is very efficient and effective for searching the data. It is a fast method. The hashing is better than any data structure.