# Operators in C

An operator is a special symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical operations. It is the combination of constants and variables through expressions.
**Example:**

int c = a+b*5Where,

**=, +,***are operators,

**a,b,c**are the variables and 5 is the constants. There are various types of the operator in C Language.

**Types of Operator**

- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Logical Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Misc Operators
- Increment/Decrement operators

**Arithmetic Operators**

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical calculations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus.

Operator |
Example (int a=9, b=2) |
Result |

+ | A+B | 11 |

- | A-B | 7 |

* | A*B | 18 |

/ | A/B | 4.5 |

% | A%4 | 1 |

**Example:**

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=9,b=2, add,sub,mul,div,mod; add = a+b; sub = a-b; mul = a*b; div = a/b; mod = a%b; printf("Addition of (a+b ) is : %d\n", add); printf("Subtraction of (a-b) is : %d\n", sub); printf("Multiplication of (a*b) is : %d\n", mul); printf("Division of (a / b) is : %d\n", div); printf("Modulus of (a%b) is : %d\n", mod); }

**Output:**

Addition of (a+b ) is : 11 Subtraction of (a-b) is : 7 Multiplication of (a*b) is : 18 Division of (a / b) is : 4 Modulus of (a%b) is : 1

**Relational Operators**Relational operators are used to compare the value of two variables.

Operator |
Description |

> | x > y (x is greater than y) |

< | x < y (x is less than y) |

>= | x >= y (x is greater than or equal to y) |

<= | x <= y (x is less than or equal to y) |

== | x == y (x is equal to y) |

!= | x != y (x is not equal to y) |

Let us consider an example

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=9,b=2; if (a == b) { printf("a and b are equal"); } else { printf("a and b are not equal"); } }

**Output**

a and b are not equal

**Logical Operators**

Logical operators are used to perform logical operations on the given two variables. There are 3 logical operators in C Language

Let us consider an example

**AND(&&), OR ( || )**and**NOT (!).**Operator |
Description |

&& | It returns true when both conditions are true. |

|| | It returns true while at least one condition is true. |

! | It reverses the state of the operand. |

Let us consider an example

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=8, b=3, c=10; if(a>b && b<c){ printf("$$Operator : Both Condition are true \n"); } if(a>b || b<c){ printf("||Operator : Only one condition is true \n"); } return 0; }

**Output**$$Operator : Both Condition are true ||Operator : Only one condition is true

**Assignment operators**Assignment operators are used to assign the values for the variable.

Operator | Description |

= | sum = 10; 10 is assigned to variable sum |

+= | sum += 10; This is same as sum = sum + 10 |

-= | sum -= 10; It is same as sum = sum – 10 |

*= | sum *= 10; It is same as sum = sum * 10 |

/= | sum /= 10; It is same as sum = sum / 10 |

%= | sum %= 10; It is same as sum = sum % 10 |

&= | sum&=10; It is same as sum = sum & 10 |

^= | sum ^= 10; It is same as sum = sum ^ 10 |

**Let us consider an example**#include <stdio.h> int main(){ int a=8,b=3,c; c=a+b; printf("a+b value is assign to c"); return 0; }

**Output**a+b value is assign to c

**Operator Precedence in C**The precedence of operators are used to specify the operators which will be evaluated first and next.**Example:**int result = 5+5*10-2;The precedence and associatively of C operators is given below:

Category |
Operator |
Associativity |

Postfix | () [] -> . ++ - - | Left to right |

Unary | + - ! ~ ++ - - (type)* & sizeof | Right to left |

Multiplicative | * / % | Left to right |

Additive | + - | Left to right |

Shift | <<>> | Left to right |

Relational | <<= >>= | Left to right |

Equality | == != | Left to right |

Bitwise AND | & | Left to right |

Bitwise XOR | ^ | Left to right |

Bitwise OR | | | Left to right |

Logical AND | && | Left to right |

Logical OR | || | Left to right |

Conditional | ?: | Right to left |

Assignment | = += -= *= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= |= | Right to left |

Comma | , | Left to right |

**Miscellaneous operators in C**There are few other important operators including

**sizeof**and**?:**supported by C Language.Operator |
Description |

sizeof() | It returns the size of a variable. |

& | It returns the address of a variable. |

* | It assigns pointer to a variable. |

? : | It is a Conditional Expression. |

**Bitwise operators**Bitwise operator is used to perform bit by bit operations on two variables.
There are following truth table for

**&**,**|**and**^**.P |
q |
p & q |
p | q |
p ^ q |

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

Operator |
Description |

& Binary AND Operator | It copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. |

| Binary OR Operator | It copies a bit if it exists in either operand. |

^ Binary XOR Operator | It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. |

~ Binary Ones Complement Operator | It is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. |

<< Binary Left Shift Operator | The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. |

>> Binary Right Shift Operator. | The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. |

Increment / decrement operator

**Increment Operator:**The increment operator is used to increase the value of the variable by one**.**

**Syntax:**

Increment operator: ++ var_name; or var_name++;

**Example:**

Increment operator: ++i; i++;

**Decrement Operator:**

Decrement operator is used to decrease the value of the variable by one

**.**

**Syntax:**

Decrement operator: -- var_name; or var_name--;

**Example:**

Decrement operator: --i; i--;

**Difference between Increment & Decrement operators**

There are various differences between pre/Post increment & decrement operators in C.

Operator |
Operator/Description |

Pre increment operator (++i) | The value of i is incremented before assigning it to the variable i. |

Post increment operator (i++) | The value of i is incremented after assigning it to the variable i. |

Pre decrement operator (- -i) | The value of i is decremented before assigning it to the variable i. |

Post decrement operator (i--) | The value of i is decremented after assigning it to variable i. |