C Tutorial

C Tutorial C Language Environment Setup Execution flow of C program C printf and Scanf C Data type C Token Variable in C Operators in C Comments in C Escape Sequence in C C – Storage Classes C Decision control statement Loop Statement in C Break, continue and goto statement in C Type Casting in C Function in C Recursion in C String in C C Array Pointer in C Dynamic memory allocation C –Structure Nested Structure in C Union in C File Handling in C C pre-processor Static Function In C Sizeof In C Selection Sort In C Scope Of Variables In C Runtime Vs Compile Time In C Random Access Lseek In C Queue Implementation In C Pseudo Code In C Prototype In C Pointer To Pointer In C Pointer Arithmetic In C Passing Array To Function In C Null Character In C Merge Sort In C Macros In C Library Functions In C Memory Leak In C Int In C Goto And Labels In C Fibonacci Series In C Fflush In C Derived Data Types In C Data Types In C Const Vs Volatile In C Character Set In C Character Class Tests In C Calloc In C C Pointers Arrays In C Include In C Clrscr In C C Vs Java String Literals In C Types Of Pointers In C Variables In C Volatile In C Why C Is A Middle Level Language Infix To Postfix Program In C Ceil function in C LCM of two numbers in C Quick sort in C Static in C function pointer as argument in C Top Array Keywords in C Add two numbers using the function in C Armstrong program in C using function Array, Declaring Arrays and Array Initialization Limitations of Inline Function in C Merge and Merge sort with example in C Do-While Loop in C For Loop in C While-Loop in C Difference between while and do-while loop in C Array Of Structures in C Data Structures And Algorithms in C Types Of Structures In C How to Avoid Structure Padding in C Use of Structure in C Do WHILE LOOP in C Programming Examples For Loop in C Programming Examples Entry Control Loop in C Exit control loop in C Infinite loop in C Nested loop in C pow() function in C String Handling functions in C Prime Number code in C Factorial Program in C using For Loop Factorial Program in C Using While Loop Fibonacci Series in C Using For Loop Fibonacci series in C using while loop Prime Number Program in C using for Loop While Loop in C programming examples Built-in functions in C Assert() Function C vs Java Strings Call Back Function in Embedded C Else If Ladder fgets() function Ftell() Function getc() function getch() function gets() function Heap Sort Nested if-else statement Pi() Function Positioning of file Write() function abs() function in C Attributes in C C program to find factorial of a number using Recursion Ferror() in c fopen() function in C Fibonacci series program in C using Recursion Formatted Input and output function in C Snake Game in C User Defined Functions in C Beep() function in C Cbrt() function in C Hook() function in C Isalnum() function in C C Program to find the Roots of a Quadratic Equation C Switch Statements Difference between rand() and srand() function in C Difference between while and for loop in C Doubly Linked list in C Example of Iteration in C How to use atoi() function in C How to use floor() function in C How to use sine() function in C How to use Typedef Struct in C Integer Promotions in C C Program to Find Largest Number Using Dynamic Memory Allocation C Program to Find the Largest Number using Ternary Operator C/C++ Program to Find the Size of int, float, double and char Find the Largest Three Distinct Elements in an Array using C/C++ Loop Questions in C Modulus on Negative Numbers in C Multiplication table program in C using For loop Nested Loops in C Programming Examples C Program for Mean and Median of an Unsorted Array Results of Comparison Operations in C and C++ Reverse a Stack using Recursion in C Simple hash() function in C strcat() Function in C Sum of N numbers in C using For loop Use of free() function in C Write a program that produces different results in C and C++

C Language Environment Setup

To compile C program, we must have GCC compiler installed on our machine. In this C tutorial, all the examples are compiled and tested using GCC compiler. Although we can use other C compilers also, GCC provides better performance. Installation To installGCC(GNU Compiler Collection), visit official site (http://mingw.org/download/installer)and download after downloading we can install it in our system and compile or executeCand C++ program easily. There are following some step to install GCC compiler in windows.

  • Download GCC (GNU Compiler Collection)compiler software.
  • Install it inside the system.
  • Opengcc command prompt and locate to the C source file location by using command. E.g. cd d:\c-program\Document> file-name.
  • To compileC program we can use gcc hello.c
  • We can execute compiled program by using EXE file (a.exe), at the time of compilation it will automatically create an a.exe file. We can execute that executable file in a different system at the same platform.
What is Compiler in C?
Compiler is a computer program that converts the human readable (programming language) source code into another computer language (binary code). In other words, we can say that  compiler takes the code and convert in to the binary code that computer can understand easily.

List of C compilers for windows OS
There is various compiler of C & C++ language for windows that are given below:
  • CCS C Compiler
  • Turbo C
  • Minimalist GNU for Windows (MinGW)
  • Portable C Compiler
  • Clang C++
  • Digital Mars C++ Compiler
  • Intel C++
  • IBM C++
  • Visual C++ : Express Edition
  • Oracle C++
All of these above compilers for C are open source (free), but there are some other paid C compilers. We can get it for trial version:
  • Embarcadero C++
  • Edison Design Group C++
  • Green Hills C++
  • HP C++ for Unix
  • Intel C++ for Windows, Linux, and some embedded systems.
  • Microsoft C++
  • Paradigm C++
Note: In this tutorial, we used GCC Compiler andsome text editor like Notepad or Notepad++. We can also use other IDE or editor. First C Program Before starting C program, we have to follow some basic rules of the C program that are listed below:
Basic Command Description
#include <stdio.h> We have to include standard input-output library functions.
void main() It is a keyword that returns no value.
printf() This function is used to print the data on the console.
system(“cls”) This function is used to clear the output screen.
/* some comments */ We can comment any line with this symbol that comment will not visible at the time of output.
return 0; This command terminated the program ( main function) and returns 0.

int main(){ 
/* comment section*/
printf("Hello friends"); 
return 0;

How to compile and execute the C program by using GCC compiler?
We can compile and execute the C program by using GCC compiler.
  • For Compilation
We can compile the C program by using command gcc <filen-name>. C
  • For Execution
We can execute the compiled program by writing the exe fileof the program.

Note: At the time of compilation of the C program, the “a.exe”exe file name will be created automatically but if we want to create own exe file, then the given above example will help us to understand easily.
syntax:Gcc –o .c