C Tutorial

C Tutorial C Language Environment Setup Execution flow of C program C printf and Scanf C Data type C Token Variable in C Operators in C Comments in C Escape Sequence in C C – Storage Classes C Decision control statement Loop Statement in C Break, continue and goto statement in C Type Casting in C Function in C Recursion in C String in C C Array Pointer in C Dynamic memory allocation C –Structure Nested Structure in C Union in C File Handling in C C pre-processor Static Function In C Sizeof In C Selection Sort In C Scope Of Variables In C Runtime Vs Compile Time In C Random Access Lseek In C Queue Implementation In C Pseudo Code In C Prototype In C Pointer To Pointer In C Pointer Arithmetic In C Passing Array To Function In C Null Character In C Merge Sort In C Macros In C Library Functions In C Memory Leak In C Int In C Goto And Labels In C Fibonacci Series In C Fflush In C Derived Data Types In C Data Types In C Const Vs Volatile In C Character Set In C Character Class Tests In C Calloc In C C Pointers Arrays In C Include In C Clrscr In C C Vs Java String Literals In C Types Of Pointers In C Variables In C Volatile In C Why C Is A Middle Level Language Infix To Postfix Program In C Ceil function in C LCM of two numbers in C Quick sort in C Static in C function pointer as argument in C Top Array Keywords in C Add two numbers using the function in C Armstrong program in C using function Array, Declaring Arrays and Array Initialization Limitations of Inline Function in C Merge and Merge sort with example in C Do-While Loop in C For Loop in C While-Loop in C Difference between while and do-while loop in C Array Of Structures in C Data Structures And Algorithms in C Types Of Structures In C How to Avoid Structure Padding in C Use of Structure in C Do WHILE LOOP in C Programming Examples For Loop in C Programming Examples Entry Control Loop in C Exit control loop in C Infinite loop in C Nested loop in C pow() function in C String Handling functions in C Prime Number code in C Factorial Program in C using For Loop Factorial Program in C Using While Loop Fibonacci Series in C Using For Loop Fibonacci series in C using while loop Prime Number Program in C using for Loop While Loop in C programming examples Built-in functions in C Assert() Function C vs Java Strings Call Back Function in Embedded C Else If Ladder fgets() function Ftell() Function getc() function getch() function gets() function Heap Sort Nested if-else statement Pi() Function Positioning of file Write() function abs() function in C Attributes in C C program to find factorial of a number using Recursion Ferror() in c fopen() function in C Fibonacci series program in C using Recursion Formatted Input and output function in C Snake Game in C User Defined Functions in C Beep() function in C Cbrt() function in C Hook() function in C Isalnum() function in C C Program to find the Roots of a Quadratic Equation C Switch Statements Difference between rand() and srand() function in C Difference between while and for loop in C Doubly Linked list in C Example of Iteration in C How to use atoi() function in C How to use floor() function in C How to use sine() function in C How to use Typedef Struct in C Integer Promotions in C C Program to Find Largest Number Using Dynamic Memory Allocation C Program to Find the Largest Number using Ternary Operator C/C++ Program to Find the Size of int, float, double and char Find the Largest Three Distinct Elements in an Array using C/C++ Loop Questions in C Modulus on Negative Numbers in C Multiplication table program in C using For loop Nested Loops in C Programming Examples C Program for Mean and Median of an Unsorted Array Results of Comparison Operations in C and C++ Reverse a Stack using Recursion in C Simple hash() function in C strcat() Function in C Sum of N numbers in C using For loop Use of free() function in C Write a program that produces different results in C and C++

C pre-processor

The C processor is a macro processor which is used to compile the source code of the program (step by step) . It is not a part of the compiler. All pre-processor commands begin with the hash symbol (#). The C pre-processor provides various facilities that are:

  • Inclusion of header
  • Macro expansion
  • Conditional compilation
  • Line control
Preprocessor Syntax/Description
Macro Macro is used to define the constant value and data types. Syntax: #define
Header file inclusion The source code of the file “file_name” is included in the main program at the specified place. Syntax: #include <file_name>
Conditional compilation It is used to set of commands in source program. Syntax: #ifdef, #endif, #if, #else, #ifndef
Other directives #undef is used to defined a macro variable and #Pragma is used to call a function before and after main function. Syntax: #undef, #pragma
  C language, there are various stages of the execution process. The given following diagram will help you:   There are following important pre-processor directories in C language.
Directive Description
#define Substitutes a pre-processor macro.
#include It is used to inserts a particular header from another file.
#undef It is used to undefine a preprocessor macro.
#ifdef It is used to return true if this macro is defined.
#ifdef It is used to return if this macro is defined.
#if It is used to check compile time condition.
#else The alternative for #if.
#elif #if and #else in one statement.
#endif It is used to end pre-processor conditional.
#error It is used to print an error message on stderr.
#pragma Issues special command to the compiler, using a standardized method.
  Example: 1
Example 2
#ifndef MESSAGE
 #define MESSAGE “You Wish”
  C Macros A macro is a name which stands for a fragment of code. Before using macro we must define it with ‘#define’ directive. It is the name of a macro. There are two types of macros.
  1. Object-like macros
  2. Function-like macros 
  1. Object-Like Macros:
The object-like macro is an identifier that is replaced by value. It is widely used to represent numeric constants. Example:
Pi =3.147
  1. Function like Macros:
Function like macros is used as a function call. Let us consider an example.
#define Max(a,b)((a)>(b)?(a):(b))
Here MAX is the macro name. There are some predefined macros :
Predefined Macros Description
_DATE_ It is defined as the current date with “MMM DD YYY” format.
_TIME_ It is defined as current time with “HH:MM:SS” format.
_FILE_ It contains the current filename as a string literal.
_STDC_ It is defined as 1 when compiler compiles with the ANSI standard.
__STDC_VERSION__ It is defined as standard’s version
_GNUC_ It is defined if and only if this is  GNU C. etc
Example of Macros
#include <stdio.h>
printf("File :%s\n",__FILE__);
printf("Date :%s\n",__DATE__);
printf("Time :%s\n",__TIME__);
printf("Line :%d\n",__LINE__);
File :main.c
Date :Apr 24 2019
Time :11:50:39
Line :6
  C #define and #include. C #defined: It defines constant value. It can be any of the basic data types. Syntax:
#define token value
Example: 1
#include <stdio.h>
#define PI 3.14
main() {
#include <stdio.h>
#define number 3.14
#define letter 'A'
#define letter_sequence "C_Tutorial"
#define backslash_char '\?'
void main(){
 printf("value of number : %f \n", number );
 printf("value of letter : %c \n", letter );
 printf("value of letter_sequence : %s \n", letter_sequence);
 printf("value of backslash_char : %c \n", backslash_char);
value of number : 3.140000

value of letter : A

value of letter_sequence : C_Tutorial

value of backslash_char  : ?
  #include: It is used to paste the code of given file into the current file. We can use system-defined and used-defined header files. There are two types of #include directive.
  1. #include< filename>
  2. #include ”filename”
int main(){
 printf("Hello World ");
 return 0;
Hello World
  C #undef: It is used to check undefined the constant or macro. It is defined by #define. Syntax:
#undef token
Example 1:
#include <stdio.h>
#define PI 3.14
#undef PI
main() {
Compile time Error: PI undeclared
Example 2:
#include <stdio.h>
#define number 15 // variable define
int squ=number*number;
#undef number
int main() {
 return 0;
  #ifdef, #else and #endif The ‘#ifdef’ directive is used to check whether the macro is defined or not. If it is defined then, ‘if’ clause statements are included in the source code. Otherwise “else” clause statements are included in the source file for compilation and execution. Example : #ifdef
#define AGE 18
void main(){
#ifdef AGE
printf("You are Eligible for voting\n");
printf("Not eligible\n");
You are Eligible for voting

  C #Pragma: The C #Pragma is used to call a function before and after the main function. It also provides additional information to the compiler. There are several types of pragmas in GCC compiler.
  • AArch64 Pragmas
  • ARM Pragmas
  • M32C Pragmas
  • MeP Pragmas
  • RS/6000 and PowerPC Praglmas
  • S/390 Pragmas:
  • Darwin Pragmas:
  • Solaris Pragmas: etc.
#pragma token
#include <stdio.h>
void function1( );
void function2( );
#pragma startup fun1
#pragma exit fun2
int main(){
 printf ( "\n Now we are in main function" ) ;
 return 0;
void fun1(){
 printf("\nFun1 is called before main function call");
void fun2(){
 printf ( "\nFun2 is called just before end of main function" ) ;
Now we are in main function