Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Booting Process in Operating System

What is Booting?

Booting is defined as the term which says that the process of loading the operating system into the memory. The process of booting begins when we switch on the computer and carry on until it is ready for use. In case of DOS also known as disk operating system, the booting procedure begins when we switch on the computer until the DOS prompt is displayed. It mainly deals with 3 main file system of DOS into memory. These files are IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS and .COMMAND.COM.

Booting Process in OS

Operating system generally performs all the basic processes such as managing files, processes and memory. Thus the operating system plays the role of manager of all the resources. That’s why the operating system is also known as the interface between the user and the hardware.

There are mainly 5 types of operating systems:

  1. Batch operating system: This is a kind of operating system which interacts with the computer. The idle time of batch operating system is very less. It easily manages huge work on batch.
  2. Time sharing operating system: In this type of operating system, every task is assigned with some amount of time to execute.
  3. Distributed operating system: In this type of operating system, user can access the files as well as software which are not included in his system. In this OS, system delay in data processing reduces.
  4. Network operating system: This type of operating system executes on a server and issues the capability of managing data and networking functions.
  5. Real time operating system: This type of operating system is designed for real time activities. For example, life saving activities such as automatic airbags in automobiles for safety purpose in case of extreme accident.

During the booting process of DOS, the following steps are implemented when we switch on the computer:

  1. When the system is switched on, BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) implements a series of activities or performance test on programs stored in ROM, called on power on self test (POST) that examine to know whether the peripherals in the system are in perfect order or not.
  2. After the BIOS is performed with pre boot activities and performance test, it reads bootable sequence from CMOS (Common Metal Oxide Semiconductor) and search for the master boot record in initial physical sector of the bootable disk as per boot service sequence described in CMOS.
    For example, the boot device sequence
    Floppy disk
    Hard disk
  3. In the next stage, the master boot record will be explored first in a floppy disk drive. If not found then the hard disk will be explored for master boot record. But if the master boot is also not present in the hard disk, we have to search in the CDROM drive. After that if the master boot is not read by any of the mention sources then the ROM displays that “NO BOOT Device Found” and system is discontinued. On uncovering master boot record from as particular bootable drive, OS loader (also known as bootstrap loader) is loaded form boot sector of bootable drive into memory. Bootstrap is type of program which is present in boot sector of bootable device.
  4. Bootstrap loader first loads the IO.SYS file and MSDOS.SYS file and load it in core file of DOS system.
  5. MSDOS.SYS explores to find the command interpreter in CONFIG.SYS file and when it is found it loads into the memory. If command interpreter is not present in the CONFIG.SYS file then the command file is loaded as default command interpreter of DOS system.
  6. AUTOEXEC.BAT is one of the most important file which is loaded in the last. It carries a sequence of DOS commands. In the next step, prompt is displayed, and we can see the bootable device appeared on the computer system. All these 6 methods are most important and explain the booting in DOS system.

Classification of Booting

  1. Switch booting: When a user switches on the computer system, the operating system is loaded from disk to main memory. This type of booting is known as switch booting. It consumes more time than the hot and warm booting. It is also known as cold booting.
  2. Warm booting: This type of booting is performed when computer is in a hang state or in a situation in which the computer gives no response. Computer doesn’t respond to commands provided by the users. There are multiple reasons behind the hang state of a computer. It can be fixed by rebooting the device by using restart or reset button on cabinet. You can also follow the shortcut key combination ALT+CTRL+DEL to restart the computer.