Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Multi-user Operating Systems


Since only one user may interact with the computer at any given time, the operating system we use on our personal computers, laptops, tablets, and phones is sometimes referred to as a single-user operating system.

A Multi-user Operating System is what?

An operating system that enables numerous users to connect and utilize a single operating system is known as a multi-user operating system. Users communicate with it through terminals, computers, or other devices like printers that provide them network access. To prevent problems with one user from affecting other users in the chain, the operating system should have to balance the needs of all of its users.

An operating system is a piece of software that serves as an interface for users and computer hardware, managing things like memory, files, and processors, among other things. To prevent problems with one user from affecting other users in the chain, the operating system should have to balance the needs of all its users.

Multiple users can simultaneously access different computer resources when the operating system is multi-user. A network of different personal computers connected to a mainframe computer system is used to offer access. A multi-user operating system enables simultaneous access to a single machine by numerous users. The mainframe computer system can receive and deliver information from many personal PCs. As a result, additional personal computers are clients to the mainframe computer's server.

Multi-user Operating Systems

The multi-user operating system's components are:

Main memory makes up memory (RAM). The operating system's main memory is crucial since it limits the number of concurrently running apps.

  1. Memory: The various kinds of physical storage on a hard drive. How many applications may be executed simultaneously depends on the hard drive, which can store significant data. Diskette, floppy Although more affordable, it is still potable.
  2. Kernel: This part is included in the computer system's main memory and has direct hardware communication capabilities. The multi-user operating system uses the kernel component at a low level and is written in a low-level language.
  3. Processor: The central processor unit (CPU) is the computer's brain (CPU).
  4. Device handler: The main objective of the device handler is to fulfill all requests from the device request queue. The I/O request block from the queue side is the first thing the device handler discards while operating in continuous cycle mode. The handler is based on the idea of a queue where the first in, first out (FIFO) rule is followed.
  5. Spooler: Line-based simultaneous peripheral output. The spooler conducts all computer operations simultaneously, which also outputs the results.
  6. The user interface, or UI: Make the environment everyone uses to access the computer system easy. One of the systems that use multi-user programming techniques is the Mainframe. Banks frequently use it to hold information about transactions and bank accounts. Security and scalability are two ways why the Mainframe is beneficial.

Operating systems for many users can be classified as one of the following:

  1. Distributed System
  2. Time-slicing technology
  3. A system with many processors

Decentralized system:

A collection of several computers situated on various machines makes up the distributed operating system, commonly referred to as distributed computing. Each system represents a single, cohesive system to the user. The network will facilitate communication between them and the end user. This method is set up so several requests may be addressed simultaneously, ultimately fulfilling each request.

  1. A distributed operating system, sometimes referred to as distributed computing, is a group of components present on several computers that communicate, coordinate, and seem to the user as a single cohesive system. The end user will use the network to connect with or control them.
  2. This system allocates resources so that several requests may be addressed at once, ultimately allowing for the fulfillment of each request.
  3. Users may do various transactions utilizing a single network while sitting at home.

Examples include mobile applications and online banking.

Time-slicing method:

Every user speaking in this system is given a brief period of CPU time. Each assignment is given a short amount of time. Each CPU slice is allotted one time, broken into smaller time chunks. The schedule determines whether to execute the following section of the job. This schedule carries out the run instructions that must be carried out. The operating system will handle the user's request among the connected users if the user chooses to take turns. The single-user operating system cannot use this capability. They both use the mainframe system at the same time.

It is a system in which a little CPU time is allotted to each user’s job. In other words, each work is given a little window of time. The user's eyes see these time slices as being too tiny. A system component known as the "Scheduler" internally decides whether to execute the subsequent work. Depending on the priority cycle, this scheduler determines and executes the run instruction or job that must be performed. Because the users can switch off, the operating system will divide user requests among the connected users. In the Single User Operating System, where the user and the computer interact directly, this capability is not accessible.

A user will be given a set time slice to complete a difficult job in the time-sliced system's Mainframe, which is used as an example in practical exams.

An example of a time-sliced system is the Mainframe.

Multi-processor systems

A multi-processor system uses several processors simultaneously. Improve the performance as a whole. If one processor malfunctions, the others keep running. Spreadsheets and music players are two examples of multi-processor systems which employ many processors concurrently. The job would be finished considerably quicker than with the single-user operating system since all the processors would execute concurrently.

Word processors, spreadsheets, music players, etc., may all be opened simultaneously on the Windows operating system without compromising the performance of any of the open applications. This is an example of a multi-processing system in action.


These are some of the features of the multi-user operating system:

  1. Resource sharing: This corresponds to time slicing and allows users to share various peripherals, such as printers, with various files or data.
  2. Background sharing and time sharing
  3. Invisibility: The user is unaware of many features in multi-user operating systems.
  4. Numerous processing: As previously said, we can run multiple applications simultaneously. For example, students might update a word document while searching the internet (perhaps on Google) and attach an excel file immediately.
  5. Resource sharing: This function can be compared to time slicing. We may share various peripherals, including printers, hard discs, and other devices, or even exchange various files or data. The webmail system is one such example that may be used in this context. This shows that the OS can accommodate millions of users concurrently when thousands of people log on at once to check their emails, send messages, etc. Therefore, a webmail program needs thousands of computers, each of which can serve thousands of users simultaneously.
  6. Data processing in the back end: Other applications can communicate with the processor in the front end simultaneously thanks to this feature, which enables data processing at the rear end when it isn't permitted to process it there. The multi-user operating system has several functionalities that are unseen to users. This is due to factors like how instinctively the OS operates or how lower-level events like formatting the disc and other things happen.

Multi-User Operating System Working Mode

The Master system should be the core of any multi-operating system.

All users have access to this Master system at all times and from anywhere and may open their own working views of the system. The "Local perspective" is what we refer to as. This is the multi-user operating system's operational model.

Users may add, remove, and edit records by their needs. Unless a user shares it or saves it to the Master System, this working model won't be available to the other users of the system.

Multi-User Operating System Components:

The CPU (Central Processing Unit), sometimes known as the computer's brain, is one of three components that comprise the multi-user operating system. Large machines would demand more ICS for the CPU. On smaller devices, however, the CPU is mapped onto a single chip known as the microprocessor.

  1. Memory: The computer's internal physical memory is where storing takes place. Every program performed must be transferred from a physical storage, such as a hard drive, since the system can rectify data already existing in the main memory. Because it controls how many applications may run at once and how much data is available, main memory is always seen as crucial. The many kinds of physical storage may be divided into:
  2. Hard discs: They can store a lot of data and control how many applications may be executed simultaneously. Lasers are used to read and write data on optical drives. However, unlike portable hard drives, they cannot store vast amounts of data. Writing and reading files are done on a CD (Compact Disk).
  3. Tapes: They are also reasonably priced. Although they have a lot of memory, random data access is impossible.
  4. Terminals:
    1. Dumb Terminal: It comes equipped with a computer and a keyboard but lacks processing capability.
    2. They are utilized for mainframe system remote work.
    3. Smart Terminals: You may use a smart terminal to perform basic editing and processing. They lack physical storage components like hard discs yet are nonetheless reasonably priced. It consists of four software parts:
      • Kernel: The kernel is referred to as the computer system's low-level component. Any blocks on the input/output device are likewise discarded as it operates continually.
      • Spooler: Spooler is mostly used in output devices like printers, and it runs all active tasks on the computer while producing the proper output.
      • Devices for input and output: These are used to send and receive data.
      • User interface (UI): UI is the point of contact between users and software/hardware, providing a simple working environment for all users and acting as a mysterious element in multi-user operating systems.
        1. Let's examine one specific example utilized extensively throughout the world.
        2. One system that utilizes the idea of a multi-user operating system is the Mainframe. Banks commonly use it to hold information about transactions and bank accounts.


  1. It facilitates the exchange of data and information between users and the sharing of physical resources like printers.
  2. It prevents interruption since if one computer on the network fails, it won't impact the other computers connected.
  3. Users can distribute their works among themselves.
  4. Data backup is possible with the multi-user operating system, and its services are dependable and organized. The multi-user operating system is highly beneficial for improving the economy.


  1. The disadvantages of setting up a mainframe computer include the need for pricey hardware.
  2. The system's overall performance is decreased when numerous people log on or utilize the same system.