Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Process Management in OS

A Program will not do anything unless a CPU executes its instructions. An executing program is called a process. The Process requires computer resources to complete its task. More than one process can exist in the system, which needs the same resources at the same time. So, the operating system handles all the resources and processes effectively.

There may be situations where many resources may need to be executed at the same time by one process so that consistency is maintained; otherwise, the system may become inconsistent, and there may be chances of deadlock.  

The operating system performs the following tasks for process management:

  • Suspending and restarting the process.
  • Offering mechanisms for process communication.
  • Offering mechanisms for process synchronization.
  • Process scheduling and threads on the CPU.
  • Create and delete system and user processes.

Process: - A process is defined as a program in execution.

Types of Processes

There are two types of Processes:

  1. I/O-Bound Process
  2. CPU-Bound Process
  1. I/O-Bound Process: - It is a type of process in which the process execution time is calculated with the help of the amount of time a process spends to complete the input/output operations.
  2. CPU-Bound Process: - CPU-Bound Process is another type of process in which the process execution time is calculated with the help of the CPU speed. If we use a faster processor, then the CPU-Bound Process may execute faster.

Components of Process

There are four components of the process:

  1. Text
  2. Data
  3. Stack
  4. Heap
Process Management
  1. Text: - Text consists of the value of the program counter and the processor’s registers content that is represented by the current activity.
  2. Data: - Data contains both static as well as global variables.
  3. Stack: - Stack contains temporary data like local variables, return addresses, and method/function.
  4. Heap: - Heap is a dynamic memory which is allocated during the run time of a process.

Attributes of Process

The attributes of a process are also called the context of the process. These attributes design the Process Control Block (PCB).

The attributes used to store Process Control Block (PCB) are:

  1. Process ID
  2. Program Counter
  3. Process State
  4. Priority
  5. General Purpose Registers
  6. List of open Files
  7. List of open Devices
Process Management

Process ID: - Process ID is a unique ID that is assigned to the process at that time when the process was created.

Program counter: - The Program counter holds the address of the last instruction of the process.

Process State: - The process state may be one of the following states, i.e., running, ready, waiting, terminate, etc.

Priority: - Some priority is assigned to every process in the memory. The process that has the highest priority between the processes gets the CPU first.

General Purpose Registers: - These registers are used to store the data which is generated at the time of process execution.

List of Open Files: - A list of open files contains some files that require to be present in the main memory when the process is executing

List of Open Devices: - List of open devices contains the list of devices that are used when the process is executing.