Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

MS Windows Operating System

This company created and marketed all of the proprietary graphical operating system families that make up Microsoft Windows. From the perspective of tests, many Government exams include Computer Awareness as a component of their curriculum, and MS Windows is a key topic from that perspective.

In this essay, we'll detail the development and history of Windows, including all of its current iterations, the Windows operating system, programmes, and key commands.

MS Windows Operating System

Overview of Microsoft Windows

Candidates should refer to the material in the table below, which provides a brief introduction to Microsoft Windows:

MS Windows
Initial Release
Marketing Target
Default User Interface
Official Website
November 20 1985
Personal computing
Available in 138 languages
Windows shell

Windows 10 is the most recent Microsoft operating system version that is extensively used worldwide.

Windows's development and history

Windows 10 is the most recent Microsoft operating system version that is extensively used worldwide. The picture below displays the various Microsoft Operating Systems along with the year that each was released:

Windows operating system iterations

Let's take a closer look at the various Windows Operating System versions and their distinct characteristics.

  1. Windows 1.0 was introduced on November 20, 1985, and it included a pure operating environment, a graphical user interface, simple graphics, and restricted multitasking. It was anticipated to have a brighter future.
  2. Windows 2.0 was also the final version of the Windows operating system, not requiring a hard disc.
  3. Hardware has a significant impact.
  4. Windows 3.0 was the first version of Windows to receive critical acclaim and had improved memory and storage. It was introduced in 1990, used 8086 microprocessors, and was better at multitasking. No one of the Windows systems stated above was an operating system; please note. The first operating system that Microsoft published was called Windows 95.
  5. The first full operating system, Window 95, was introduced on August 15, 1995. It combined MS-DOS and Windows products. It streamlined plug-and-play functionality. The taskbar and start menu were added with this version of Windows OS. Long file names could be stored. Initially, PCs running Windows 95 did not have Internet Explorer installed, but the first version of the browser had been added to the program by the time of its release. Windows deemed this OS version obsolete and stopped supporting it on December 31, 2001.
  6. Windows 98 was a 16-bit and 32-bit product based on MS-DOS that was released to manufacturing on May 15, 1998. It was not a completely new version but Windows 95 that had been tuned up. In 1999, an update to this version called "Windows SE" was released.
  7. Windows 2000 was shown to the public on February 17, 2000. However, its production started in late 1999. A core set of features were followed for the production of Windows 2000, although four separate versions were launched, each aimed at a different market segment.
  8. Windows XP, although production began on August 24, 2001, the final product wasn't published until October 25, 2001. Support for advanced portable computers, automatic wireless connections, quick startup, improved graphical user interfaces (GUIs), and help and support resources.
  9. Windows Vista was made available on January 30, 2007, and included an improved Graphical User Interface.
  10. Windows 7: A few features from earlier versions of Windows were eliminated.
  11. Windows 8: New security elements were implemented. Online Applications could be downloaded directly.
  12. Windows 10 was made available on July 29, 2015, and fixes issues with the user interface that were initially introduced with Windows 8. It included a virtual desktop system, new icons, and the option to run Windows Store applications on the desktop rather than in full-screen mode. Windows 10 also automatically compresses files to help with storage issues.
MS Windows Operating System

Applications for Windows

Important Windows Commands List

Since computers operate on a set of commands provided as input, more advanced operating systems now allow commands to be entered using various hardware devices.

For the applicants' reference, a few significant MS-DOS Windows commands are listed below:

  1. cd – change directory.
  2. cls – clear window.
  3. dir – display list of contents of the current directory.
  4. assoc – display/modify file extensions.
  5. call – calls one batch program file from another.
  6. comp – compares the contents of two files.
  7. date – displays the date.
  8. edit – Run MS-DOS text editor.
  9. find – search for a text string in a file.
  10. help – help about a command.
  11. notepad – windows notepad text editor.
  12. type – displays the content of the text file.
  13. attrib – displays/changes file attributes.
  14. colour – set text and background colour.
  15. copy – to copy one or more files to another location.
  16. del – delete multiple files.
  17. exit – close MS-DOS window.
  18. move – move one or more files to another location.

The commands, as mentioned above, are often input into the computer through a hardware device rather than being utilized directly by the user.

The history and evolution of Windows and operating systems may come up in forthcoming exams; therefore, candidates should prepare with the information provided above in this article.

Windows operating system security

An operating system that protects your computer and its contents from the minute it boots up—basic chip-to-cloud security—is essential for security and privacy. These precautions include strong network and system security, built-in superior encryption and data protection, and intelligent defences against ever-evolving threats.

Trusted Boot and Secure Boot

Secure Boot and Trusted Boot work together to ensure your Windows system boots up securely. Initial boot-up protection is provided by Secure Boot, and subsequently, Trusted Boot takes over.

Cryptanalysis and certificate administration

Data is converted into code using cryptography so only a specified receiver with a key may read it. By enforcing privacy, integrity, and authenticity—which confirms identity—cryptography ensures that data cannot be read by anyone other than the intended receiver and that communication is safe.

App for Windows Security

The Windows built-in security programme offers an instant overview of your device's security state and overall health, which can be accessed under settings. You may instantly view the status of your firewall and network security, virus and threat protection, device security controls, and other security measures. Thanks to these insights, you can discover problems and take steps to ensure your protection.

Data security and encryption

Wherever private data is kept, it must be secured against unwanted access, including theft of physical devices and harmful software. Windows offers reliable at-rest data protection options to stave off malicious intruders. Data theft or exposure from lost, stolen, or improperly retired computers is a hazard that is addressed by the OS system-integrated data protection feature

Unreadable Hard Drive

Encrypted Hard Drive employs BitLocker Drive Encryption's quick encryption to improve data security and administration. Encrypted Hard Drives improve BitLocker performance and use less CPU time and power by shifting cryptographic processes to hardware. Enterprise devices may grow BitLocker deployment with no negative effect on productivity because of the speed at which Encrypted Hard Drives encrypt data.

Security standards

A set of configuration options that Microsoft recommends with an explanation of how they affect security is known as a security baseline. These options were chosen based on input from the product teams, partners, and customers of Microsoft's security engineering teams.

The Security Compliance Toolkit, available for download from the Microsoft Download Center, contains security baselines.

Private Internet Access

Point-to-point connections via a private or public network, like the Internet, are what virtual private networks (VPNs) are. A VPN client connects virtually to a virtual port on a VPN server using specialized TCP/IP or UDP-based protocols known as tunnelling protocols.

Google Chrome Firewall

In addition, Windows Defender Firewall offers Internet Protocol security (IPsec), which you may use to make any device that tries to interact with your device authenticate before continuing.

Protection from malware and viruses

Updates are automatically downloaded to help shield your device from threats. Cloud-delivered protection is integrated with Microsoft Defender Antivirus to detect and prevent new and emerging threats immediately.

Rules for attack surface minimization

Your attack surfaces are the locations and methods where you are exposed to online threats. Windows and Windows Server have built-in attack surface reduction rules to stop and prohibit specific activities frequently exploited to hack your device or network. Such actions include starting suspicious scripts or executables that try to download or run additional files and other actions that applications ordinarily wouldn't do when carrying out their regular duties. Your attack surface reduction rules can be set up to guard against these unsafe actions.

Anti-tampering defence

To more easily access users' data, install malware, or otherwise abuse users' data, identities, and devices without being stopped, bad actors seek to deactivate security safeguards. Bad actors try to deactivate security measures like antivirus protection on targeted computers during cyberattacks (like ransomware attempts). Such actions are deterred by tamper protection.

Malware is stopped from doing certain tasks thanks to tamper protection, including: - Disabling viruses and threat prevention

- Turning off real-time defence

Disabling antivirus software like IOfficeAntivirus (IOAV) and behaviour monitoring

- Turning off cloud-delivered security

- Removing updates to security intelligence

Network security

Windows' network protection features assist users in avoiding risky IP addresses and domains containing phishing schemes, exploits, and other harmful information online. A user is further protected by network protection, which is a component of lowering the attack surface. Network protection restricts access to potentially hazardous, low-reputation-based domains and IP addresses using reputation-based services.

Microsoft Defender for Endpoint, which offers thorough reporting into protection events as part of more comprehensive investigation scenarios, performs network protection best in business contexts.