Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Function of Kernel in Operating System

What is Kernel?

The kernel in computer science refers to the central part of an operating system that manages vital system resources such as the memory, central processing unit (CPU), and input/output devices. Its function is to provide a medium through which a computer system's different hardware and software elements can communicate efficiently.

The kernel plays a vital role in managing a computer system's processes, memory, devices, and security. It also offers system calls and interfaces that enable applications to utilize system resources.

Operating systems can have different kernel architectures, including monolithic kernels, microkernels, and hybrid kernels. The decision to use particular kernel architecture depends on various factors such as performance requirements, security requirements, and development complexity.

Here are some of the great significances of kernel in an operating system:

  • The operating system's core takes responsibility for managing resources, like the central processing unit, storage, and input/output tools - allocating them in a way that is both efficient and effective for the running processes.
  • The operating system's kernel manages the lifecycle of processes, enabling the execution of several programs simultaneously while preventing interference between them.
  • The kernel has the vital task of managing the allocation and deallocation of memory, ensuring that programs are provided with the necessary memory, and preventing any memory overlap or leakage issues.
  • The kernel undertakes the important task of managing device drivers, enabling seamless interactions between applications and input/output devices. These devices include essential peripherals, like keyboards, mice, and printers.
  • In terms of safety, the kernel acts as a safeguard between the system hardware and applications. Its chief function is to prevent applications from interfering with other parts of the system or accessing protected resources.
  • In order to access system resources such as network connections, file systems, and inter-process communication, applications rely on system calls. These calls are essentially interfaces offered by the kernel itself.
  • The performance of an operating system is considerably influenced by the design and implementation of its kernel, which can impact crucial factors like response times, throughput, and latency.

1. Memory Management

Memory management is a way for controlling and coordinating computer memory, assigning portions of memory to different processes, and ensuring sufficient memory to run it efficiently. Memory management is an essential part of an operating system, as it allows multiple processes to run concurrently without interfering with each other.

The operating system employs different strategies for managing memory, such as virtual memory, paging, and swapping. Virtual memory permits a process to utilize more memory than the computer has by utilizing a portion of the hard drive as additional memory. Paging involves splitting memory into fixed-size pages that can be transferred between physical memory and disk when necessary. Swapping involves transferring entire processes to and from a disk, which clears up physical memory for other processes.

The kernel plays a critical role in memory management in an operating system. Here are some of the key roles of the kernel in memory management:

  • Memory Allocation: The kernel allocates memory to processes and manages the allocation of physical and virtual memory.
  • Memory Protection: The kernel ensures that processes cannot access memory that does not belong to them, preventing processes from interfering with each other.
  • Page Replacement: The kernel decides which pages should be moved between physical memory and disk based on factors such as access patterns and frequency of use.
  • Memory Fragmentation: The kernel manages memory fragmentation, which occurs when memory is allocated and deallocated in a way that leaves small unused gaps of memory that are too small to be used by any process.
  • Memory Sharing: The kernel supports memory sharing between processes, allowing multiple processes to access the same memory, improving system performance, and reducing memory usage.

2. Process Management

Managing several processes running in an operating system is known as process management. Here, a process means a running program that can be created, scheduled, and terminated. This management is vital to an operating system since it enables multiple processes to run simultaneously, each with its memory and resource allocation.

In the management of processes in an operating system, the kernel is essential. Some of the most important functions of the kernel in process management are listed below:

  • Process Creation: The kernel generates new processes, including assigning resources like memory and CPU time.
  • Process scheduling: The kernel assigns a time slot for each process to execute on the CPU, distributing CPU time fairly and maintaining that the system responds quickly to user requests.
  • Process Termination: It frees up system resources by ending processes that have completed their execution or have grown unresponsive.
  • Interprocess Communication: The kernel offers channels for processes to talk to one another, enabling processes to exchange data and coordinate their operations.
  • Process control: The kernel offers tools for managing processes, such as allocating resources to processes in accordance with their priorities and imposing resource limits.
  • Process synchronization: The kernel offers tools for synchronizing processes, enabling them to coordinate their actions and prevent conflicts.
  • Process monitoring: The kernel keeps an eye on how processes behave, looking for and reacting to errors and irregularities.

3. Device Management

Device management is the term used to describe the management of physical devices within an operating system. It involves organizing and managing the use of input/output, storage, and network devices, as well as other physical components. Offering a trustworthy and efficient application interface for accessing hardware devices is the main objective of device management.

Device management comprises many tasks, including device initialization, device assignment, and device assignment release.

In an operating system, device management is crucially dependent on the kernel.

Following are a few of the kernel's most important functions in device management:

  • Device Drivers: The kernel provides device drivers, which are software components that interact with hardware devices and provide a standardized interface for applications to access devices.
  • Device Initialization: The kernel initializes devices when the system starts up, detecting the presence of devices and loading the appropriate device drivers.
  • Device Allocation: The kernel allocates devices to processes; ensuring process has access to the devices it needs to perform its tasks.
  • Device Deallocation: The kernel deallocates devices when no longer needed, freeing up system resources.
  • Interrupt Handling: The kernel handles interrupts generated by devices, allowing the system to respond quickly to external events such as user input or network traffic.
  • Power Management: The kernel manages the power consumption of devices, implementing techniques such as sleep states and dynamic frequency scaling to conserve energy.
  • Device Monitoring: The kernel monitors the behavior of devices, detecting and responding to errors and abnormal conditions.

4. Security and Protection

Any operating system must include security and protection features. "security" describes the steps to stop unauthorized access to system resources and defend the system against malicious attacks. Protection is the term used to describe the systems in place to ensure that only authorized people and processes have access to certain resources.

In an operating system, the kernel is crucial for security and protection. Some of the kernel's most important functions in security and defence are listed below:

  • User authentication: To ensure that only users permitted to access the system can use its resources, the kernel verifies users who seek to log in.
  • Access Control: The kernel carries out policies governing access control, ensuring that programs and users can only access resources to which they have been granted access.
  • Memory Protection: Processes are prevented from accessing memory are not authorized to by memory protection techniques provided by the kernel.
  • File system Security: The kernel upholds file system security regulations, ensuring that programs and users can only access the files to which they have been granted access.
  • Network Security: The kernel offers capabilities that shield the system from network-based assaults and stop unauthorized access to network resources.
  • Process isolation: The kernel separates processes so that they cannot access or alter the memory of one another.
  • System call filtering: The kernel filters system calls by guaranteeing that only authorized programs are allowed to make system calls and preventing malicious processes from jeopardizing system security.


The kernel is critical in modern computers for regulating system resources such as memory, processes, devices, and security. It serves as a link between programs and hardware, allowing applications to access hardware resources in a uniform and standardized manner.

The kernel is in charge of providing a stable and trustworthy platform for applications to function on and guaranteeing that application may run effectively without being interrupted by other processes. It also provides a safe environment for applications, shielding them from harmful attacks and prohibiting unauthorized access to system resources.

The kernel is constantly evolving to match the increasing demands of modern computing. The kernel must change to accommodate new hardware and software innovations while maintaining backward compatibility with existing applications as hardware becomes more complicated and more sophisticated.