Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

Single-User Operating System

An operating system designed and intended to be used on a computer or device with a single user at a time is known as a single-user operating system. Devices like wireless phones and two-way message systems frequently employ this operating system.

One of the most crucial applications used on a computer, the operating system, is in charge of managing various functions. It controls hardware connectivity, the efficient use of other apps, memory utilization, and other resource management. One program or application can only be used simultaneously in a single-task operating system. A computer or device designed to execute numerous programs simultaneously is less helpful.

Single-User Operating System

Multiple apps and programs can run simultaneously on a multitasking operating system. This is frequently used on computers when someone wants to utilize the internet, a graphical editing application, a media player programme, play music, and take notes in a basic word processing program. This would be impossible for a single-task OS to accomplish, yet multitasking systems can manage all of these tasks. Instead, a single-user multitasking operating system is utilized in this situation.

Even though this operating system may establish a network connection with other computers, it is still only used by one person. The computer is a single-user system as long as there is just one monitor, keyboard, and other input devices.

A single-user operating system, commonly referred to as a single-tasking operating system, is made specifically for personal computers. One person can only use the computer at once. The single-user operating system permits one user at a time to access your computer, but it occasionally supports numerous profiles. Additionally, it may be applied in professional settings and other situations.

Therefore, the provision of a memory protection, fire protection, and security system is not necessary for this operating system. The machines using this operating system only have one CPU, which can only run one software. One user at a time is given access to all the system's resources, including the CPU and I/O devices.

Single-User Operating System

The operating system for a single user is for PCs with single computer support. Another user cannot communicate with another active user in this operating system. One kernel image will operate simultaneously as the main component of the single-user operating system; there is no additional capability to run more than one kernel image.

Single-User Operating System Types

Two categories can be used to categorize single-user operating systems, such as:

Single-User Operating System

Individual User Operating system for a single task

An operating system permits a single user to run a single application simultaneously. Some operations are completed in a single frame, such as printing paper and downloading photos and movies.

 This operating system was created with wireless phones and two-way messaging specifically in mind.

As in MS-DOS and Palm OS (Used in Palm-held computers).

Single-User Operating System

This operating system was created specifically for two-way messaging systems and cellular phones. Only one user can complete one job at a time in the single-user single-tasking operating system. Some operations are completed in a single frame, such as printing paper and downloading photos and movies. Think about MS-DOS, Palm OS, etc.


It offers the following benefits:

  1. Less memory is used by this operating system.
  2. It is economical.


  1. Less enhanced

Solitary-User Multitasking Operating System

A single user may execute numerous applications simultaneously thanks to the operating system, enabling simultaneous multitasking. On personal computers and laptops, this kind of operating system is present. Microsoft Windows is the most widely used single-user multitasking system. Preemptive or cooperative single-user multitasking is also possible.

  1. Pre-emptive: The operating system allows one slot for each program to divide up the available central processing time.
  2. Cooperation: This is accomplished by counting on each process to provide time for other processes in a certain way. A user may carry out many activities, for instance, snapping pictures while recording video or making computations in Excel sheets. The Single-Person Multitasking operating system was created only for one user, yet that user may do several tasks simultaneously. For instance, on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS, you may type any text while browsing the internet, downloading photographs, watching movies, etc.


It offers the following benefits:

  1. Time-saving.
  2. High output in a short period.
  3. Multiple tasks use less memory than one task does.


  1. Require more room;
  2. Be more complicated

Characteristics of single-user operating systems

The user of a single-user operating system can benefit from the following features, for example: o It does not employ a scheduling procedure for I/O.

  1. It requires less user scheduling.
  2. It is solely intended for one-time usage.
  3. It is designed to do only a few tasks at a time.
  4. It doesn't employ MMU
  5. .Understanding user commands.
  6. File administration.
  7. Memory control.
  8. Input/output control.
  9. Resource distribution.
  10. A memory management (MMU) unit is not used.
  11. It is designed to complete just one task at a time.
  12. The users' schedule is utilized less frequently.
  13. I/O does not employ a scheduling procedure.
  14. I am managing the procedure.

Single-user operating system functions.

A single-user operating system's primary functions are explanation and description. Here are several other single-user OS features, including:

  1. Understanding user commands: It receives the user's commands and communicates them to the rest of the operating system. It may be menu-driven, command-driven, or a GUI with a WIMP system. The user interacts with this operating system area to command the machine.
  2. File management: This regulates how backup storage is set up. It uses a portion of the disc as a file catalog, which contains information about where the disc's data is kept. A hierarchical filing system is used to organize files, keeping them in various directories and subdirectories.
  3. Memory management: This regulates where data and applications are stored in the system's primary memory. Multiple programs can run simultaneously in memory on many operating systems. Memory management ensures that no software replaces any other program (including the OS itself).
  4. Input/output management: It facilitates communication between input and output devices and the computer system. It manages the data flow from peripherals to the CPU.
  5. Resource Allocation: The OS assigns resources to other apps and programs. For instance: Scheduler to time-share processors, such as batch, in the foreground or background.
    1. Memory management, such as transferring memory contents to hard discs and virtual memory paging.
    2. Assures hardware devices are accessible to drivers.
    3. Mechanisms for accounting and restriction enforcement, such as the number of pages printed and the file space allotted to each user.
  6. Managing Processes: It manages disruptions and regulates processes. The kernel controls interrupt and maintain processes (when a program executes, it begins a process that may launch other processes).
  7. Understanding user instructions: By the name, we may infer that the remainder of the operating system receives the user's orders. Here, the user interacts with the OS component that allows them to direct the machine.
  8. File administration: File management regulates how backing storage is organized. The hierarchical filing system divides directories and subdirectories into distinct groups for storing files. A portion of a disc is utilized as a file catalog, holding information on the material stored there.
  9. Memory Control: Because many operating systems let running two or more applications simultaneously in memory, this prevents overwriting from happening. Additionally, it manages the programs and data kept in the memory.
  10. Input-output administration: It facilitates interaction between the computer and input-output systems. It facilitates a data flow between the CPU and peripherals.
  11. Resource Distribution: The OS is in charge of allocating resources to other applications. For instance, memory management (MMU) involves shifting memory contents to hard drives.
    The enforcement of restrictions, such as those on page printing.
    Additionally, it guarantees that drivers have access to hardware.
  12. Controlling Procedures: Its job is to manage disruptions and regulate procedures.

Single-user operating system examples

Different operating systems include DOS, Windows 3x, Windows 95, 97, and 98. Additionally, Symbian OS is a single-user OS for mobile devices.

Because only one program is focussed on at a time, these systems are sometimes known as single application OSs. These systems can process data in a queue and use fewer resources. These systems effectively handle routine operations like paying employees' wages or processing payroll.

Single-user operating systems have advantages.

Operating systems designed for a single user focus on processing that uses fewer resources. One user uses a single interface when functioning in a single-user mode. No other operating system interferes with the processing in these systems. Here are some more benefits of single-user operating systems.

  1. Supports one user at a time: Only one person can be active in these systems. Therefore, no other user will be able to interfere with the programs. Additionally, all computer resources in these systems are consumed by user demands.
  2. Simple to maintain: These systems use fewer resources and are less complicated, making them simple to keep up with and troubleshoot. In a multi-user operating system, more resources are required and often consumed.

Less likelihood of damage since fewer requests are made at once for the hardware and software in these systems. These systems don't provide longer load times either.

  • Focus on one task at a time: A modern operating system allows for the simultaneous execution of several tasks. While several programs and processes run simultaneously, only one task executes simultaneously on a single-user OS. As a result, these systems may produce fewer results at once.
  • This operating system uses less RAM.
  • Simple to maintain
  • Lower risk of harm.
  • Because this is a single-user interface, only one user's duties may be completed in time.
  • This operating system only allows one person to operate simultaneously, preventing interruptions for other users.
  • This operating system only allows one person to operate simultaneously, preventing interruptions for other users.

Problems with Single-User Operating Systems

Additionally, there are several drawbacks to single-user operating systems, such as:

  1. Projects take longer to finish: As you are aware, no multiple jobs are running simultaneously, and numerous tasks are waiting for the CPU. As a result, these systems react to processes more quickly. The system will become sluggish, and reaction time will increase.
  2. Higher idle time: These devices remain idle while just one job is active, and this activity doesn't need memory or I/O utilization. But some tasks call for those tools. As a result, only one activity may be carried out at once, and subsequent tasks must wait until the initial work is accomplished—ineffective utilization of the CPU, memory, and disc I/O results.
  3. It is limited to doing just one duty.
  4. The OS is not used to its full potential and sits idle most of the time.
  5. Projects take longer to finish.
  6. The response time is quick.

Single-User vs. Multi-User OS Differences

The following list outlines the differences between single-user and multi-user operating systems:

TermsSingle-user operating systemMulti-user operating system
1. Definition    A single user can only access the computer system at once using a single-user operating system.A system that enables several users to access a computer system simultaneously is known as a multi-user operating system.
2. BootloaderThe bootloader installs the whole CPU's resources into a single superuser's profile.Based on the importance of the users, the bootloader allocates CPU resources.
3. Super User      A superuser controls system upkeep and change-making to ensure the system functions as intended.A multi-user operating system does not have a superuser since each entity is in charge of its operations.
4. Complexity          Single-User Operating Systems are straightforward to create.The complexity of Multi-User Operating Systems derives from the fact that they must utilize sophisticated methods to distribute resources across several users.
5. Performance  One task is only carried out at a time.Schedules several jobs for completion at any rate.
6. ExamplePersonal computers, MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT, Windows 2000, etc.Linux and Unix Distributed OS, mainframes, IBM AS400, etc.