Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Types of Operating System Evolution of Operating System Functions of Operating System Operating System Properties Operating System Services Components of Operating System Needs of the Operating System

Operating Systems

Linux Operating System Unix Operating System Ubuntu Operating System Chrome Operating Systems Fedora Operating System MAC Operating System MS Windows Operating System Solaris Operating System Cooperative Operating System CorelDRAW Operating System CentOS FreeBSD Operating Systems Batch Operating System MS-DOS Operating System Commercial Mobile Operating Systems


Difference Between Multi-programming and Multitasking Difference between C-LOOK and C-SCAN Difference between Rotational Latency and Disk Assess Time Trap vs Interrupt Difference between C-SCAN and SSTF Difference between SCAN and FCFS Difference between Seek Time and Disk Access Time Difference between SSTF and LOOK Difference between Process and Program in the Operating System Difference between Protection and Security in Operating System

How To

How to implement Monitors using Semaphores How to Install a Different Operating System on a PC


What is Kernel and Types of Kernel What is DOS Operating System What is Thread and Types of Thread What is Process Scheduler and Process Queue What is Context Switching What is CPU Scheduling What is Producer-Consumer Problem What is Semaphore in Operating System Monitors in Operating System What is Deadlock What is Paging and Segmentation What is Demand Paging What is Virtual Memory What is a Long term Scheduler What is Page Replacement in Operating System What is BSR Mode What is Convoy Effect What is Job Sequencing in Operating System Why is it critical for the Scheduler to distinguish between I/O-bound and CPU-bound programs Why is there a Need for an Operating System


Process Management Process State Scheduling Algorithm FCFS (First-come-First-Serve) Scheduling SJF (Shortest Job First) Scheduling Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Priority Based Scheduling HRRN (Highest Response Ratio Next) Scheduling Process Synchronization Lock Variable Mechanism TSL Mechanism Turn Variable Mechanism Interested Variable Mechanism Deadlock Avoidance Strategies for Handling Deadlock Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Detection and Recovery Resource Allocation Graph Banker’s Algorithm in Operating System Fixed Partitioning and Dynamic Partitioning Partitioning Algorithms Disk Scheduling Algorithms FCFS and SSTF Disk Scheduling Algorithm SCAN and C-SCAN Disk Scheduling Algorithm Look and C-Look Disk Scheduling Algorithm File in Operating System File Access Methods in Operating System File Allocation Method Directory Structure in Operating System N-Step-SCAN Disk Scheduling Feedback Queue in Operating System Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Real-time Operating System Starvation in Operating System Thrashing in Operating System 5 Goals of Operating System Advantages of Operating System Advantages of UNIX Operating System Bit Vector in Operating System Booting Process in Operating System Can a Computer Run Without the Operating System Dining Philosophers Problem in Operating System Free Space Management in Operating System Inter Process Communication in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Memory Management in Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System Multitasking Operating Systems Multi-user Operating Systems Non-Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Page Table in Operating System Process Scheduling in Operating System Segmentation in Operating System Simple Structure in Operating System Single-User Operating System Two Phase Locking Protocol Advantages and Disadvantages of Operating System Arithmetic operations in binary number system Assemblers in the operating system Bakery Algorithm in Operating System Benefits of Ubuntu Operating System CPU Scheduling Criteria in Operating System Critical Section in Operating System Device Management in Operating System Linux Scheduler in Operating System Long Term Scheduler in Operating System Mutex in Operating System Operating System Failure Peterson's Solution in Operating System Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions in Operating System Swapping in Operating System Types of Operating System Zombie and Orphan Process in Operating System 62-bit operating system Advantages and Disadvantages of Batch Operating System Boot Block and Bad Block in Operating System Contiguous and Non - Contiguous Memory Allocation in Operating System Control and Distribution Systems in Operations Management Control Program in Operating System Convergent Technologies in Operating System Convoy Effect in Operating System Copy Operating Systems to SSD Core Components of Operating System Core of UNIX Operating System Correct Value to return to the Operating System Corrupted Operating System Cos is Smart Card Operating System Cosmos Operating Systems Examples Generation of Operating System Hardware Solution in Operating System Process Control Block in Operating System Function of Kernel in Operating System Operating System Layers History of Debian Operating Systems Branches and Architecture of Debian Operating Systems Features and Packages of Debian Operating Systems Installation of Operating System on a New PC Organizational Structure and Development in Debian Operating Systems User Interface in Operating System Types Of Memory in OS Operating System in Nokia Multilevel Paging in OS Memory Mapping Techniques in OS Memory Layout of a Process in Operating System Hardware Protection in Operating System Functions of File Management in Operating System Core of Linux Operating System Cache Replacement Policy in Operating System Cache Line and Cache Size in Operating System What is Memory Mapping? Difference Between Network Operating System And Distributed Operating System What is the difference between a Hard link and a Soft Link? Principles of Preemptive Scheduling Process Scheduling Algorithms What is NOS? What is the Interrupt I/O Process? What is Time Sharing OS What is process termination? What is Time-Sharing Operating System What is Batch File File system manipulation What is Message-passing Technique in OS Logical Clock in Distributed System

User Interface in Operating System

Operating system

An operating system (OS) is a group of programs that controls computer hardware resources and serves as a conduit between the user and the computer's hardware. It gives computer programs access to standard services. An essential part of a computer system's system software is the operating system (OS).

  1. Interfaces link the user and operating system because they allow for communication.
  2. The operating System Tutorial explains fundamental and more complex operating system principles. We have developed a tutorial on operating systems for GATE candidates, experts, and novices. We created this tutorial after conducting an extensive study on each topic.
  3. The material is described in depth and can address most of your questions. The lesson also includes numerical examples based on GATE topics from prior years, enabling you to approach the issues practically.
  4. An operating system can be thought of as a technology and human interface. It gives the individual a setting to carry out their tasks effectively.
  5. According to its purposes, such as Process Management, Process Synchronization, Deadlocks, and File Management, the Operating System Tutorial is split into different sections.

Operating system user interface

Computers have a variety of interface kinds that users can link to, and it is through this relationship that data is transferred.

Additionally, there are various platforms in machines. These connections can be used in computers whenever necessary, even though they are not always used. As a result, multiple interfaces can be used to accomplish various duties.

Command-line environment

This is known as the command-line argument, and it is used to implement the output and create, remove, print, copy, paste, etc. The command-line interface is a user interface where the user must have various input and output instructions before a job is done.

With the aid of the command-line tool, all of these tasks are completed. Several activities can be carried out with the help of the command line interface, thanks to the fact that numerous commands can be stopped at once, and only one is executed because the interface is always linked to the OS.

Graphical interface

The graphical user interface is used because these apps require graphics for activities like playing games and viewing movies.

  1. One of the virtual interfaces is the GUI because it allows the user to view movies and see images correctly.
  2. Therefore, a GUI is required for computers, and an operating system is the only tool to make this happen.
  3. When a task is carried out on a computer, the operating system (OS) examines it and determines the interface required. Thus, the OS must include a GUI.

The fundamental elements of GUIs are:

  1. Start menus with program groups;
  2. Taskbars with active program indicators;
  3. Desktop screens with various icons and tools.

Selection of UI

When a task can be completed with the aid of an OS and an interface, and the result is displayed on the screen, the job can be achieved in the shortest time possible. After examining the task by selecting an interface, the operating system determines which interface may be appropriate for a given job.

This form of interface is known as the interface option, and it can be carried out with the aid of an OS. The OS uses system calls when the user wishes to offer it instructions. Or a user program can use system functions to connect to the kernel, an OS component.

User interface functions

It is an automated method for a computer program to ask the operating system kernel for a service.

The program runs in the following two modes:

  1. User mode is limited to user activities and cannot access system resources.
  2. Hardware components like RAM and printers are accessible in kernel mode.

Depending on the code being executed on the processor, a computer's CPU can switch between the two states. A task running in user mode cannot access an operating system-reserved virtual address.

When the operating system manages a user program, such as a text editor, the system is in user mode. When a program asks the operating system for assistance, the shift from user mode to kernel mode occurs when an interrupt or a system call happens.

In user mode, the mode bit is assigned to 1.

A request to the kernel is required whenever a program requires access to any system resources. The program will transition to the seed through system functions. In Kernel mode, it will occur with the system's capabilities. It will return to user mode once the system resources' job has been completed. Only when the hardware is required will it enter kernel mode.

User Interface In Operating System

User apps cannot utilize hardware resources for security reasons; instead, they ask the operating system for one when they need to perform any I/O or use any memory. Through system communications, this request is issued.

User Interaction and Kernel Functions

Let's now examine the functions of the kernel and user interface.

User interface

Serving as a conduit between them makes contact between a program and its user easier. Each operating system program is given a unique user interface (UI) for efficient collaboration. An application's user interface serves two fundamental purposes: to receive input from users and to deliver results to users.

It can be divided into the following two categories:

  1. Graphical user interface (GUI): This interface is represented graphically.
  2. The instruction line user interface (CLI) requires entering a particular instruction or code to accomplish your task.


It is an OS's main component. (operating system). The kernel is in charge of controlling all programs, memory, data, etc. It is a conduit (bridge) between the hardware and user-level software applications. It is also known as the computer's primary component or its brain.

The Windows operating system's user interface components are described below.

The operating system's central component, the kernel, oversees all critical operations. The seed of different parts communicates directly with the low-level hardware. Additionally, it offers the necessary layer to shield systems or application programs from low-level hardware specifics. Because the kernel is a crucial program for adequately operating the computer system, an operating system cannot function without it.

Aspects of the user interface

The primary elements are GUI (Graphical user interface). It is composed of the following four parts:

  1. Windows
  2. Icons
  3. Menus
  4. Pointer

The following are some typical window controls:

  1. Minimizing
  2. Maximizing
  3. Close windows

The following are the fundamental GUI elements:

  1. The code groups and the Start interface.
  2. The task area displays programs that are currently operating.

The desktop displays links and symbols.

The Microsoft Corporation creates the Windows operating system, has a multitasking interface, offers virtual memory, etc.

User Interface In Operating System

Let's now talk about some of the GUI's components, which are as follows:

  1. A symbol that shows on the screen and that you move to pick instructions and objects is known as a pointer.
  2. Small pictorial representations of programs are icons—the program file loads when you double-click the symbol.
  3. Menus – A group of choices made available to the user to aid program implementation.
  4. Scroll bar – The window's scroll bar can move the information.
  5. Input devices: keyboards, mice, devices for audio or video, connections, etc.

The operating system's microkernel

One of the types of kernels is the microkernel, which is frequently denoted by the symbol "- kernel." Software is what offers a way to put an operating system into action.

The following are the implementation's features or mechanisms:

  1. Inter-process dialogue
  2. Thread control
  3. Address room control at the low level

User and kernel services are maintained in separate address regions in the microkernel. Customer address space is where customer applications are put. The category kernel services contain kernel functions. As a result, the kernel and operating system sizes are minimized or decreased.

The microkernel illustration is provided below.

It is compact, trustworthy, and highly safe. It offers some memory control and process administration procedures.

In addition, the micro-kernel offers the services listed below.

  1. CPU-Scheduling.
  2. Communication between processes.
  3. Memory control.

The reasons for including a mini kernel in the operating system

  1. An operating system can be expanded very quickly because it is movable. Microkernels can be added to system apps. The firmware won't be impacted in any manner.
  2. A microkernel is a tiny kernel. This makes it quick and efficient. Compared to unitary cores, they are smaller.
  3. Its source code is also compact. Twelve thousand lines of code make up the MINI 3 mini kernel's capacity. A large flow is produced.
  4. An operating system can be expanded very quickly because it is movable. Microkernels can be added to system apps. The firmware won't be impacted n any manner. A large flow is produced.
  5. A microkernel is a tiny kernel. This makes it quick and efficient. Compared to unitary cores, they are smaller.
  6. Its source code is also compact. Twelve thousand lines of code make up the MINI 3 mini kernel's capacity. A large flow is produced.